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Gaardenier: A gardener. (Dutch)
Gabartman: A boatman.
Gabeler: A tax collector.
Gabelou: A collector of salt tariffs. (French)
Gadsman: This is a someone who leads a horse that is pulling a plough.
Gaffer: (1) A foreman or a boss. (2) An elderly man or a rustic. An elderly woman would be a gammer. (3) A glassblower.
Gaffman: A bailiff.
Gager: A revenue officer who inspects bulk goods that are subject to duty. Especially liquor casks.
Gagne-deniers: A French unskilled worker.
Gagne-petit: A knife grinder. (French)
Gainaio: A harness maker. (Italian)
Galgaio: A tanner.
Galibot: A young boy working in a pit.
Galiongee: A sailor from Turkey.
Gallipot: An apothecary.
Galloglass: A soldier or armed retainer of a chief in ancient Ireland and other Celtic countries. (Also gallowglass)
Galopin: A kitchen boy.
Gambist: A musician who plays the viola da gamba.
Gamekeeper: A person who is in charge of the breeding and protection of animals that are hunted on private land.
Gamester: Someone who plays games, especially a gambler.
Gammer: An elderly woman. An elderly man would be a gaffer.
Ganger: The foreman of a work gang , often on a canal or on the railways.
Gangrel: A vagabond or beggar.
Gangsman: The foreman of a work gang , often on a canal or on the railway.
Ganneker: An Inn Keeper.
Gantier: A glove maker.
Gaoler: A jailer.
Garcifer: A groom.
Garcon: A waiter. (French)
Garde: A guard or watchman. (French)
Garde de cheval: A guard looking after horses. (French)
Gareelmaher: A harness maker. (Dutch)
Garnisaire: (1) An assistant to a bailiff. (French) (2) Someone in a garrison. (French)
Garreteer: (1) Someone who lives in a watch tower, or a place of safety. (2) A poor author.
Garret master: A skilled person such as a cabinetmaker, locksmith, etc., working on his own who would supply a dealer.
Garthman: (1) A herdsman. (2) A yard worker. (3) Someone who built a dam in a river to catch fish.
Gass Fitter: Someone working with gas lighting.
Gas Manager: A mine worker whose responsibility was to detect potentially dangerous gasses.
Gater: A porter or guard. (As in gatekeeper)
Gatekeeper: Someone who controls access to something, for example a city gate.
Gateman: A gate keeper or tender.
Gatehouse Keeper: A porter or guard who looked after a lodge at the entrance to the driveway of an estate.
Gatherer: (1) A person who is employed to collect payments for rent or tax. (2) A glass worker working alongside the glass blower. (Also Gatherman)
Gatward: Someone who looked after goats.
Gauger: A revenue officer who inspects bulk goods that are subject to duty. Especially liquor casks.
Gaunter: A glove maker.
Gaureur: A waffle maker.
Gazetteer: Originally someone who wrote for a gazette.
Gazier: (1) A gas fitter. (2) A gauze maker.
Gebur: A tenant farmer.
Geestelijke: A Clergyman. (Dutch)
Geindre: A journeyman baker.
Gelder: A person who gelds or castrates animals.
Gendarme: A policeman.
Geneesheer: A Pyysician. (Dutch)
General: (1) The Senior commissioned army rank immediately below a field marshal in the British army. (2) The chief official of a religious order.
General Purpose Rating (G.P.R.): This is a navy term for a rating who has signed on to work where required on a ship.
Gentleman: Normally someone who lives off the income derived from his land.
Gentleman factor: An estate or farm manager.
Gentleman of the Bedchamber: This is an archaic position within the British Royal Household, and goes back to the 11th century. The main duties involved waiting on the monarch at meal times, helping with dress, guarding the bedchamber and water closet, and providing companionship. The holder , or holders (as there was usually more than one) were invariably gentlemen and almost invariably peers. It’s believed the last position was held in 1837.
Gentleman of the Horse: This was an important position in the stables department of the British Royal Court, second only to the Master of the Horse. The position was in existence in 1693, but was abolished in 1782. It was revived in 1828, but the duties were subsequently take over by the Crown Equerry.
Gentleman Usher: This is a position, generally, but not exclusively, within the British Royal Household, and is the person who is largely responsible for overseeing the work of the servants "above stairs", and in particular those who cooked and waited at meals, and saw to it the great chamber was kept clean by the lesser servants. He was also responsible for overseeing other service, such as the care of the nobleman's chapel and bed-chambers. It was traditionally the gentleman usher who swore in new members of the nobleman's service. Today they are generally appointed from retired military, naval and air force officers for irregular and infrequent attendance at royal events. They are usually seen at Garden Parties, and Investitures, where they act as ushers. Ushers, who are unpaid, retire at 70, when they may become Extra Gentlemen Ushers. Certain Gentleman Ushers act outside of the Royal Family (at the Houses of Parliament for example) and these are called Particular Gentlemen Ushers, where there are at least eight different categories.
Gentleman Usher of the Black Rod: This is a position within the British Royal Household, and believed to have been created in 1350. His responsibilities include maintaining the buildings, services, and security of the Palace of Westminster, the personal attendant of the Sovereign in the Lords; as secretary to the Lord Great Chamberlain and as the Sergeant-at-Arms and Keeper of the Doors of the House, in charge of the admission of strangers to the House of Lords. Either Black Rod or his deputy, the Yeoman Usher, is required to be present when the House of Lords is in session, and plays a role in the introduction of all new Lords Temporal in the House. Part of this role includes the arrest any Lord guilty of breach of privilege or other Parliamentary offense, such as contempt or disorder, or the disturbance of the House's proceedings. Perhaps Black Rod is best known for his role in the ceremonies during the State Opening of Parliament. He summons the Commons to attend the speech and leads them to the Lords. As part of the ritual, as Black Rod approaches the doors to the chamber of the House of Commons to make his summons, when they are slammed in his face. This is to symbolize the Commons' independence of the Sovereign. Black Rod then strikes the door three times with his staff, and is then admitted and issues the summons of the monarch to attend.
Gentleman Usher of the Blue Rod: This is the Gentleman Usher to the Most Distinguished Order of Saint Michael and Saint George, established in 1818 by George IV. The Order of St Michael and St George is awarded to men and women who render extraordinary or important non-military service in a foreign country. There are three levels of the award. (a) Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross-GCMG., (b) Knight Commander-KCMG or Dame Commander-DCMG., (c) Companion-CMG. British Ambassadors serving overseas are regularly appointed as KCMGs or CMGs.
Gentleman Usher of the Green Rod: This is the Gentleman Usher to the Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle, established in 1687 by King James VII of Scotland (James II of England) . The Order of the Thistle, which applies only to Scotland, is the second-most senior in precedence. Its equivalent in England, The Most Noble Order of the Garter, is the oldest documented order of chivalry in the United Kingdom, dating from the 14th century.
Gentleman Usher of the Purple Rod: This is the Usher to the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire, established in 1917 by King George V. The Order is composed of five classes in civil and military divisions. In descending order of seniority, these are: (a) Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire-GBE., (b) Knight Commander or Dame Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire-KBE or DBE., (c) Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire-CBE., (d) Officer of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire-OBE., (e) Member of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire-MBE. The highest two ranks automatically entitle its recipient to become a knight or dame.
Gentleman Usher of the Scarlet Rod: This is the Gentleman Usher to the Most Honourable Order of the Bath, established on 18 May 1725 by King George I. The name derives from the elaborate ancient ceremony for creating a knight, which involved bathing as a symbol of purification as one of its elements. The knights were known as "Knights of the Bath". There are three classes of member, with both military and civilian categories. (a) Knight Grand Cross –GCB., or Dame Grand Cross-GCB., (b) Knight Commander-KCB or Dame Commander –DCB., (c) Companion –CB. This is the fourth-most senior of the British Orders of Chivalry, after The Most Noble Order of the Garter, The Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle, and The Most Illustrious Order of St Patrick-which is currently believed to be dormant.
Gentleman Usher to the Sword of State: This is a position within the British Royal Household. He used to be responsible for bearing the Sword of State before the monarch on ceremonial occasions such as the State Opening of Parliament. Although the role still exists, the Gentleman Usher was removed from the procession at the State Opening of Parliament back in 1998.
Geometer: A mathematician whose area of study is geometry.
Geometrician: A mathematician whose area of study is geometry.
Germologist: This person would perform quality checks on diamonds or gemstones.
Geweermaker: A gunsmith. (Dutch)
Ghillie: A Scottish fishing and hunting guide. Historically this was a highland chief's attendant.
Giardiniere: A gardener. (Italian)
Gibeonite: A slave's slave.
Gigger: A textile worker who raises the nap on cloth by running it through a gig.
Gilder: Someone whose job it was to overlay something with gold leaf–as in books.
Giletier: A waistcoat maker. (French)
Gillie: A Scottish fishing and hunting guide. Historically this was a highland chief's attendant.
Gilter: Someone who picks locks.
Gimper: A worker with a narrow flat braid or rounded cord of fabric used for trimming.
Gindre: A journeyman baker.
Ginete: A Spanish mounted soldier.
Giletier: A waistcoat maker.
Gin Spinner: A distiller.
Gioielliere: A jeweller (Italian)
Giornalista: A journalist. (Italian)
Giornatiere: A day labourer. (Italian)
Gip: A servant at a college.
Girder: A hoop or belt maker. A cooper.
Girdler: (1) Someone involved in the making of girdles-an iron baking plate. (2) A belt maker.
Girdlesmith: Someone involved in the making of girdles-an iron baking plate.
Girnalman: The person who looked after a granary.
Gitan: A male gypsy.
Gitane: A female gypsy.
Giudice: A Judge. (Italian)
Glaceur: A glazer.
Gladys: In the late 19th century, a J. Lyons waitress was called a "Gladys". They subsequently became a "Nippy from about 1926.
Glasblazer. A glassblower. (Dutch)
Glass Blower: A skilled worker who would blow down a tube which had molten glass at one end and shape it into the desired shape. The glass would be coloured where necessary by adding various oxides. (Cobalt for blue, gold for red, copper or iron for green, silver or antimony for yellow, and magnesia for violet)
Glass Coachman: The driver of a small carriage.
Glass Grinder: An occupation usually found in the making of plate glass where the glass would be ground with sand and then polished with emery. Glass polishing is sometimes shown as a separate occupation.
Glassite: A member of a religious sect founded by John Glas (1695-1773).
Glassman: A dealer in glassware.
Glasswright: Someone who made or repaired glass items.
Glazier: (1) A person who selects, cuts, installs, and replaces glass. (2) A thief who smashes windows to steal from a shop. (circa 1800)
Gleeman: A professional singer, bard, or entertainer. Normally itinerant.
Glimmerer: An unlicensed beggar.
Glossarist: The writer of a glossary.
Glossator: A commentator.
Glosser: A commentator.
Gobar(er): A gatherer of cow dung which would be used for fuel.
Gobeletier: A cup maker or cup seller.
Glover: A glove maker.
Gluepot: A parson. (From joining men and women together in matrimony)
Glyptographer: Someone who carried out engraving on precious stones.
Gobber: A pit term for the person who would stow the waste. Also known as a packer.
Godilleur: An oarsman. (French)
Gold Beater: A workman who would hammer either gold or silver into thin leaves that would be used for gilding. The process was normally carried out on marble blocks fitted to a wooden frame.
Goldsmith: (1) A person who forges items out of gold, especially jewellery. (2) A banker (as the goldsmiths of London used to receive money on deposit, being able to keep it securely.)
Gombeenman: An unscrupulous Irish money lender.
Gold Stick: This is a position within the British Royal Household, and is the bodyguard (along with Silver Stick) to the Sovereign on ceremonial occasions. Today, the role is held jointly by the Colonels of the Life Guards and the Blues and Royals. It dates back to Tudor times when two bodyguards were responsible for the Sovereign’s safety, but today is purely ceremonial. Since the reign of Queen Victoria these Officers attend all State occasions and take part in the processions for the Coronation and the State Opening of Parliament. On these occasions Gold Stick conveys the Sovereign's orders to the Household Cavalry. The name originates from the staff of office, which has a gold head. When one of the Gold Sticks is on duty, the other holder is the Gold Stick In Waiting. Scotland has separate Gold and Silver Sticks.
Gong Farmer: A cesspit emptier. (Sometimes called a night-man, as the task had to be done at night)
Gong-Fayer: A cesspit emptier. (Sometimes called a night-man, as the task had to be done at night)
Gongfermor: A cesspit emptier. (Sometimes called a night-man, as the task had to be done at night)
Gong-Fower: A cesspit emptier. (Sometimes called a night-man, as the task had to be done at night)
Gong Scourer: A cesspit emptier. (Sometimes called a night-man, as the task had to be done at night)
Good brother: A brother-in-law.
Goodman: The owner or tenant of a farm.
Goodwife: A form of address. The mistress of the house or farm.
Gore Keeper: Someone who looked after a piece of land-usually triangular in shape.
G.P: A General Practitioner. A doctor.
Gossoon: An Irish boy servant.
Goujat: (1) A Batman. (2) A hod carrier.
Gougandine: A harlot. (French)
Governor of the Military Knights of Windsor: This is a position within the British Royal Household and dates back to the 16th century. The role which is given to a senior retired military officer is responsible for the Military Knights of Windsor. (Retired military officers who receive a pension and accommodation at Windsor Castle)
Graf: A German title of dignity equivalent to Count.
Grafdelver: A grave digger. (Dutch)
Graffer: A scribe or a clerk licensed to prepare legal documents.
Grainer: (1) A person who removed the hair or fur from hides in preparation for tanning. (2) A worker who would paint, stamp, or print with a design imitating the grain of wood, leather, or stone. (3) A seedsman. (French)
Grand Pursuivant: This is a Masonic position whose duty is to announce all applicants for admission into the Grand Lodge by their names and Masonic titles; to take charge of the jewels and regalia of the Grand Lodge; to attend all meetings of the Grand Lodge, and to perform such other duties as may be required by the Grand Master or presiding office. At a local level it would be called an Inner Guard.
Granger: A farmer or farm steward.
Granter: A granary keeper.
Graveur: An engraver. (Dutch)
Graviano: An engraver. (Italian)
Grazier: A person who grazes cattle.
Greave: A bailiff or foreman.
Green Bag: An attorney. (Slang)
Greengrocer: Someone who sold fruit and vegetables.
Greenwich Barber: Retailers of sand from the pits in and around the Greenwich area.
Greenwich Goose: A pensioner at Greenwich Naval Hospital.
Grenadier: Originally a soldier who threw grenades, but subsequently a member of the first company of every foot battalion.
Greeur. A rigger. (French)
Greffier: A registrar or recorder. (French)
Grey Parson: A farmer who rents the tithes of the vicar.
Grieve: A bailiff, manager or foreman-often on a farm.
Grinder: (1) A person who would normally call door to door sharpening knives etc. (2) A tutor for someone about to take an examination. (Also a crammer).
Grinterman: A granary keeper.
Grisaille(r): A skilled person working with a specific type of glass favoured by monasteries and cathedrals because of its dull look.
Grizzly Man: A Tin miner whose job it was to break up or explode rocks that were too large to move otherwise.
Grocer: Someone who sells food and small household goods.
Grofsmid: A Blacksmith. (Dutch)
Groom of the Chamber: This was a general attendant position in the Royal Household responsible to the Lord Chamberlain, and were his junior officers, with ushers and footmen the “foot soldiers”. Grooms ranked below Gentlemen of the Chamber, but above Yeomen of the Chamber, and were usually important noblemen. They were mostly well-born, and at the beginning of a courtier’s career. The office of Groom of the Chamber could also be given as an honour to people who served the royal household in some less direct way. One additional advantage was that Grooms could not be arrested for debt without the permission of the Lord Chamberlain.
Groom of the Privy Chamber: This was a general attendant position in the Royal Household responsible to the Lord Chamberlain. The post was in existence in 1660, although seems to have died out by 1837. According to the Household Ordinances of Charles II, the grooms of the privy chamber were responsible for manning the doors into the privy chamber. However, by 1720 they had largely lost their attendance except on extraordinary Occasions, such as Coronations, Etc. They were appointed by lord chamberlain's warrant. During the reign of Charles II there were six of them; during that of James II it was reduced to two; from 1689 it was fixed at four. They received salaries of £73 consisting of wages of £20 and board wages of £53. Early in the period, they were also entitled to diet and lodging when in attendance, candle ends, livery worth £40, riding wages and fees of honour which averaged about £30–£40 per annum early in the eighteenth century. Under Charles II, assistant grooms, also known as `grooms of the privy chamber in ordinary standing supernumerary' were appointed at £20 per annum. Between 1731 and 1740 an extra groom was occasionally appointed.
Groom of the Robes: This is an obsolete position within the British Royal Household, dating back to at least the 16th century. It’s equivalent to a Lady-in-Waiting for the Queens Regnant.
Groom(er) of the Stool: A person in a Royal household who would look after the “toilet” requirement of the monarch. Sir Henry Norreys, a Groom of the Stool under Henry VIII, was executed for an alleged affair with Anne Boleyn.
Groom Porter: This is an obsolete position within the British Royal Household, dating back to at least the 16th century. The holder of this role seems to have had responsibility for the royal court billiard tables, bowling grounds, dicing houses, gaming houses and common tennis courts along with which came the power of licensing within the City of London, Southwark and Westminster. The title may originally have referred to the Keeper of the King's Furnishings in his bedchamber.
Groomsman: The "best man" at a wedding.
Grooms of the Privy Chamber in Ordinary Standing Supernumerary: See Groom of the Privy Chamber.
Groover: (1) A miner. (2) The operator of a device that makes grooves by cutting or punching.
Groper: A midwife. (circa 1800)
Ground officer: Someone who would manage an estate.
Guardaboschi: A woodman. (Italian)
Guardacaccia: A gamekeeper. (Italian)
Guardia: A guard or sentry.
Guarnaio: A cloak or gown maker. (Italian)
Gubernator: A Helmsman or Pilot (Latin-This dates back to Roman times)
Gueusard: A beggar. (French)
Gueux: A beggar. (French)
Guillotine Operator: Someone in a print room who would cut paper to size.
Gummer: A person who used a punch-cutting tool, or machine for deepening and enlarging the spaces between the teeth of a worn saw to sharpen them.
Gunner: (1) In the Navy, this was formerly a warrant officer responsible for the training of gun crews and accounting for the ammunition. (2) In the Army, an artilleryman or private.
Gunsmith: A manufacturer of guns.
Gut Scraper: A fiddler. (As in a musician)
Gymnosophist: A sect of ancient Hindu philosophers who wore little or no clothing, and lived a solitary life in mystical contemplation.
Gynour: An engineer.
Gyp: (1) A servant at a university. (2) A swindler.
Haberdasher: A dealer in drapery goods of various types, such as laces, silks, trimmings, etc. There is still a Worshipful Company of Haberdashers'.
Habilleur: A theatre dresser. (French)
Hacker: (1) A horse rider. (2) Someone who trains falcons in a specific way. (3) A woodman. (4) A hoe maker.
Hacklemaker: A hackle is a sort of board with protruding spikes used for combing or pulling out hemp or flax.
Hackler: Someone who carries out the early stages of preparing raw jute and flax for spinning.
Hackney Man: The driver of a horse driven taxi. Hackney coaches were introduced to London about 1625 when there are believed to have been about 20 in operation. By 1715 they were limited to 800, and were subject to strict regulations, being fined for any offense.
Hag: Originally a witch.
Hagiographer: A sacred writer.
Hairdresser: Originally someone who would cut hair, shave gentlemen, and make wigs and braids.
Hakim: (1) A judge or governor in Mohammedan India. (2) A physician (Also a hakeem).
Halberdier: A soldier who would have carried an axe like blade and a steel spike mounted on the end of a long shaft.
Half Marrow: A young boy involved in pit work, and specifically moving the coal in tubs.
Half timer: A child who spends half the day in a factory school and the other half working in the actual factory.
Hall Girl: A junior domestic servant similar to a Parlour Maid, usually in a large house and one of some or many other servant staff. The position tended to die out from the beginning of the 20th century. A Hall Girl had approximately the same status as a Scullery Maid. In larges houses her duties would extend to waiting on the more senior servants such as the Housekeeper, Butler or Cook. (Also known as a Tweeny or a Between Maid) The term Between Maid comes from the fact that her duties were split between the cook and the butler.
Hallier: A market worker or stall-holder.
Hammal: A Turkish porter.
Hammerman: (1) A blacksmith or goldsmith. (2) A pit worker who hammered out the coal.
Hand maiden: A female servant.
Hand Putter: Someone who pushes mine wagons.
Handseller: A seller of cheap goods.
Hanger-On: A mining term involving the movement of tubs of coal.
Hangman: A public executioner.
Hansard: A weapons maker.
Harbinger: Originally someone who went ahead of the main party to look after the lodgings.
Hardwearman: An ironmonger.
Harengere: A fish wife. (French)
Hariolius: A Soothsayer. Also known as a Haruspex. (Latin-This goes back to Roman times)
Harlequin: The leading character in a pantomime.
Harlot: (1) A prostitute. (2) A young rogue.
Harman: A constable.
Harman Beck: A beadle.
Harmonist: A musical composer.
Harmoniumist: Someone who plays the harmonium.
Harper: Someone who played the harp.
Harpist: Someone who plays the harp.
Harrovian: Someone who attended school at Harrow.
Harrower: A person who used a harrow (a type of plough) to break down heavy soil.
Haruspex: A Soothsayer (Latin-This goes back to Roman times)
Hatter: Someone involved in the manufacture of hats and headwear.
Havildar: The highest rank of non-commissioned officer among native troops in India.
Hawbuck: A clown.
Hawker: Is a vendor of merchandise that can be easily transported. The term is roughly associated with a peddler or a costermonger. The Pedlars Act of 1871 required traders on foot to be licensed by the police and The Hawkers Act of 1888 required traders with transport to be licensed by the Borough Council.
Haybote(r): A person who collected wood from a common to erect and maintain fences.
Haymaker: Someone employed in cutting and drying grass to make hay.
Haymonger: A dealer in hay.
Hayward: (1) Someone who was involved in the overseeing of sowing and harvesting of crops as well as protecting the crops from both people and stray animals. (2) A manorial officer whose duty was to maintain fences and hedges to prevent cattle from straying. (3) Someone who kept cattle in an open field.
Headborough: A deputy or petty constable, or constable. In use in the 19th century.
Headsman: (1) An executioner. (2) A young boy involved in pit work, and specifically moving the coal in tubs.
Hecklemaker: A heckle is a sort of board with protruding spikes used for combing or pulling out hemp or flax.
Heckler: Someone who carries out the early stages of preparing raw jute and flax for spinning.
Heddler: A worker in a textile mill who would operate a set of parallel cords or wires in a loom used to separate and guide the threads, and make a path for the shuttle.
Hedgebote: An archaic word for the right of a tenant to cut wood on the farm or land for repairing the hedges or fences.
Hedge parson: A parson-usually illiterate.
Hedge priest: A priest-usually illiterate.
Hedger: Someone who looks after hedges.
Heel Maker: This is a shoe-making term for the person who crafts the heel of a shoe.
Heel Parer: This is a shoe-making term for the person who crafts the heel of a shoe.
Heel Scourer: This is a shoe-making term for the person who crafts the heel of a shoe.
Helcologist: This is someone within the branch of pathology concerned with ulcers.
Heliolater: A worshiper of the sun.
Hellier: A slater or tiller. Sometimes called a Hillier.
Helmsman: The person who steers a ship.
Hempen widow: The widow of a man who has been hanged.
Henchman: Originally a servant.
Henry (A): An archaic term used in navy circles for a pilot or navigator. Its origin is uncertain but probably refers to the Portuguese explorer “Henry the Navigator “ (Dom Henrique, 1394-1460) the son of King João of Portugal, and Philippa of Lancaster, the daughter of John of Gaunt. Prince Henry is a legendry figure and it’s difficult to differentiate between fact and fiction with many of his exploits.
Herald: (1) Formerly an official who would make royal announcements. (2) A messenger who would carry important news. (3) An official who formerly made proclamations and conveyed challenges at a tournament.
Herbager: A grazier.
Herbergier: An Innkeeper. (Dutch)
Herboriste: A dealer in herbs.
Hercheur: A haulage boy.
Heresiographer: Someone who writes about heresies. (Also Heresiologist)
Heritor: (1) A landowner who was responsible for the poor in his parish and sometimes the stipend of the church minister. (2) A person who inherits something. (Sometimes land)
Heritress: A female who inherits something. (Sometimes land)
Her Majesty's Botanist: This is a position within the Royal Household in Scotland and dates back to 1699. Since 1956 the office of Her Majesty’s Botanist has been an honorary one, and conferred on a serving or retired Regius Keeper. (The most senior member of the Royal Botanic Garden).
Her Majesty's Representative at Ascot: This somewhat unusual position within the British Royal Household dates back to at least the 19th century, and has responsibility for admitting people to the Royal Enclosure at Ascot Racecourse (Ascot Racecourse opened on 11 August 1711).
Herniologist: Someone involved in the branch of surgery which treats ruptures.
Herpetologist: Someone involved in the branch of natural history which treats reptiles.
Herring Couper: Someone who bought and sold herring.
Hetheleder: This is someone who provides heather which will be used as a fuel.
Hetman: A cossack general.
Hewer: A person who hews or cut the coal from its natural location.
Hidalgo: The lowest class of Spanish noblemen.
Hieroglyphist: Someone skilled in the study of hieroglyphics.
Higgler: A peddler, usually with a horse and cart, which invariably included some bartering. (2) A local slang term for a hangman. (circa 1840)
High Constables of Holyroodhouse: This is a ceremonial guard position within the Royal Household in Scotland, based at Holyrood House. Dating from the early sixteenth century, they now parade whenever the Sovereign, or the Lord High Commissioner of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, is in residence.
High Pad: A highwayman.
Hillier: A slater or tiller. Sometimes called a Hellier.
Hind: (1) An agricultural labourer or ploughman with his own cottage, who worked on the land with his wife and family. (2) A household servant.
Hippodromist: A circus trainer or rider.
Hippologist: Someone involved in the study of horses.
Hippopathologist: Someone involved in the pathology of horses.
Hireling: (1) A hired servant. (2) A prostitute. (3) A mercenary.
Historiographer Royal: This is a position within the Royal Household in Scotland. Created in 1681, today it has no formal responsibilities or salary, and is held by commission under the Great Seal of Scotland.
Histologist: Someone involved in the formation and development of human tissues.
Histrion: An actor.
Hitcher: (1) Someone in a mine who would put the wagons into the cages. (2) A chief attendant at the pit bottom.
H.L.W. A hand loom weaver.
Hoastman: A member of an archaic coal shipping merchant's guild in the North East of England.
Hob: A clown.
Hobbler: A sort of light horseman in the Middle Ages who was mounted on a hobby.
Hobbinol: A clown.
Hobbyist: Someone who rides a hobby horse.
Hod: A bricklayers labourer.
Hod Boy: A young boy in a mine who would put the coal into wagons for onward transportation.
Hodsman: A manual labourer who would carry bricks in a hod.
Hoedenmaakster : This is a hat maker. (Dutch)
Hoefsmid: A blacksmith. (Dutch)
Homager: One of the twelve jurors in a manor court.
Homeopathist: Someone who believes in, or practices homeopathy.
Homme de cheval: A horseman. (French)
Honey Dipper: This is someone who cleaned sewage out from oathouses.
Honourable Band of Gentlemen Pensioners: See Captain of the Honourable Corps of Gentlemen-at-Arms.
Hoofer: A dancer.
Hooker: (1) A single masted sailing boat once used for cargo, but now just used for pleasure or racing. (2) A slang term for a prostitute-this term has been in use since at least the 1840's. (3) A reaper.
Hooper: Someone who made the retaining hoops in casks or barrels.
Hopper: Someone involved in hop picking. Hops were used in the making of beer.
Horlogemaker : A watch or clock maker. (Dutch)
Horloger: A clock maker. (French)
Horner: Someone who worked with horns-for example in the manufacture of handles for knives or making combs.
Horse Breaker: Someone employed in "breaking in", subduing or training horses for future use.
Horse Capper: A dealer in old or worthless horses.
Horse Coser: A horse dealer.
Horticulturist: Someone who practices the art of cultivating gardens.
Hoseman: A fireman who directs the stream of water from the hose of a fire-engine.
Hosier: A retailer of hosiery - socks, stockings, gloves etc.
Hospes: An Innkeeper. (Latin)
Hospitaller: A member of a charitable brotherhood for the care of the sick in hospitals: one of an order of knights, commonly called Knights of St John (otherwise called Knights of Rhodes, and afterwards of Malta), who about 1048 built a hospital for the care and cure of pilgrims at Jerusalem.
Hospitis: An Innkeeper. (Latin)
Hosteller: An Inn Keeper.
Hostler: (1) Originally, someone who kept a house for strangers. (2) As in ostler in the horse industry. A groom or a stableman. (3) A stableman at an inn.
Host Man: A member of a fraternity in the Newcastle Upon Tyne area who were responsible for the carriage of coal.
Houilleur: A French coal miner.
Housebote: A person who collected wood from a common to erect and maintain houses.
Household master: A senior male servant responsible for a household.
Housekeeper: (1) Originally, someone who occupied a house. (2) A female servant who looks after the house.
Housemaid: A female servant employed to keep a house clean.
House Surgeon: A surgeon or medical officer who lives in his place of work-as in a hospital.
Houthakker: A wood cutter. (Dutch)
Hoveller: (1) This is someone who assisted in saving the life of people or property from a vessel that has been wrecked near the coast. (2) A boatman acting as a non-certificated pilot or doing any kind of occasional work on the coast.
Howdie: A midwife.
Howdy: A midwife.
Hucier: A bin maker.
Huckster: A male hawker who would often sell imitation goods, or in the case of alcohol, watered down. Literally, a dealer who carried his wares on his back.
Huckstress: A female hawker who would often sell imitation goods, or in the case of alcohol, watered down. Literally, a dealer who carried his wares on her back.
Huffler: A Thames estuary sailing barge worker.
Huisschilder : A house painter. (Dutch)
Huissier: An usher.
Huisvrouw: A wife. (Dutch)
Humanist: A student of human nature.
Humanitarian: Originally, someone who denied Christ's divinity believing him to be an ordinary man.
Huntsman: (1) Someone who hunts. (2) The servant who manages the hounds and the chase at a hunt.
Hurer: The maker of a shaggy and bristly type of hat or cap.
Husband: This was a ship owner's representative who would take charge of stores, arrange repairs and transact the ship's business on behalf of the owner.
Husbandman: A farmer below the “rank” of a yeoman. A husbandman usually held his land by copyhold or leasehold tenure.
Hussar: (1) Originally, a Hungarian cavalry soldier. (2) A lightly armed dragoon guard introduced into the British Army in 1756. Hussar literally means (a) A twentieth man, as in the Hungarian army one man in every twentieth family was levied. (b) A spy or a scout.
Huurman: A hired man. (Dutch)
Hydrographer: This is someone who would carry out a survey of the oceans, seas, or inland waterways, and would subsequently produce navigational charts based on their findings. In the Royal Navy this would usually be a Flag Officer. The role of the Hydrographer in the navy goes back to at least the early 19th century where the first Royal Navy Hyrographer was Captain Thomas Hurd in 1808.
Hymnologist: Someone who would either write or study hymns.
Hynder: A farm servant.
Hyne: A farm servant.
Hypocrite: This was originally an actor.
Hypodidasculus: (1) A Schoolmaster. (2) An Usher. (Latin)
Iceman: (1) A vendor who sells ice from a wagon or cart. (2) Someone in attendance at any frozen pond or area where skating etc. are taking place.
Ice Master: This is the person who takes over the navigation of a whaler ship when in an ice field.
Ice Patrol: This is a look out on a ship-specifically to keep watch for any ice.
Ichthyologist: Someone who studies fish.
Iconophilist: Someone involved in the study of pictures etc.
Idleman: A man of substance who doesn’t have to work for a living.
Idler: This is a navy term for someone who only works during the day and doesn't take part in the night watch. For example a carpenter or sail maker. Otherwise known as a "dayman".
Idraulico: A plumber. (Italian)
Ijzergiester: This is someone who works in a foundry. (Dutch)
Illuminator: Someone who illuminates, especially someone involved in adorning books with coloured letters or illustrations.
Illusionist: Someone who performs tricks for entertainment.
Immigre: An immigrant. (French)
Imperator: (1) A commander. (2) An emperor. (3) A ruler.
Impost Taker: A money lender at a gaming table.
Impresario: (1) A manager or conductor of a troupe of concert or operatic singers. (2) An undertaker (Italian)
Imprimeur: A printer. (French)
Incline Man: A miner working on an inclined plane.
Incumbent: A Parson, Rector, or Vicar.
Indigotier: A maker of indigo.
Indulgence Passenger: Someone who is given passage on a warship normally for compassionate reasons.
Industrieel: A Dutch industrialist.
Infantry: A foot soldier. The oldest infantry regiment in continuous service in the British Army is the Royal Regiment of Foot-later the Royal Scots.
Ingegnere: An engineer.
Ingeuus: A yeoman or freeholder.
Inn Holder: The person holding the licence to an Inn. Could be with or without accommodation. There is still a Worshipful Company of Innholders.
Inn Keeper: Someone who managed premises to sell alcohol, food and lodgings.
Insegnante: A teacher.
Inspector of Nuisances: Someone who was employed by the parish to inspect for offensive conditions known as nuisances, which would include such things as bad sanitary conditions and smells. A modern day Sanitary Inspector. The inspector would also distribute disinfectant where there was a known contagious disease.
Intagliatore: (1) A carver. (Italian) (2) An engraver. (Italian)
Intendent: (1) The holder of a public administrative office. (2) The person in charge, or keeper.
Intercessor: (1) A bishop who acts during a vacancy in a see. (2) Someone who reconciles two enemies.
Intern: (1) An inmate of a school. (2) An assistant surgeon or physician in a hospital.
Intruder: A puritan minister installed in a benefice following the expulsion of the lawful incumbent during the Interregnum.
Iron Blacker: This is a shoe-making term for the person who dyes the tanned leather with a mixture of what was probably iron filings and vinegar.
Iron Founder: Someone who worked in an iron foundry, smelting iron to make various metal castings.
Iron Miner: Someone who worked in the mining industry, extracting iron ore.
Ironmaster: The manager, and usually the owner of a forge or blast furnace used for the processing of iron.
Ironmonger: This originally referred both to the manufacture and the place of sale of iron goods produced for domestic use. Also known as a Feroner.
Ironsmith: A person who makes iron articles; a blacksmith.
Irvingite: A member of the Catholic Apostolic Church. (Originating in England in 1831, and often referred to as Irvingism.)
Ischear: (1) A teaching assistant. (2) A court officer whose duty it is to keep order in a court of law.
Islesman: In general terms an islander, but especially an inhabitant of the Hebrides.
Israelite: A descendant of Israel or Jacob: a Jewish person.