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Macchinistaengine: (1) A driver. (Italian) (2) An engineer on a ship. (Italian)
Macellaio: A butcher. (Italian)
Macellator: A butcher. (Latin)
Macer: An usher in a court.
Machine man: Although this applies to anyone working a machine, it usually refers to someone in a printing office.
Machine Shearer: The operator of a power driven shearing machine. (as in a mine)
Machinist : (1) A generic term for someone who worked a machine. (2) A Dutch engineer.
Maderer: A dealer of garlic.
Maestro: (1) An eminent musical composer or conductor. (2) A school master. (Italian)
Maestro-di-Cappella: A choir master. (Italian)
Magazziniere: A warehouseman. (Italian)
Magdalen: A repentant prostitute.
Mage: A magician.
Maggot Bolier: A tallow chandler (Circa 1800)
Magister: A schoolmaster.
Magnano: A locksmith. (Italian)
Magus: (1) A Magician. (2) A Holy Man. (Latin)
Mahatma: Someone skilled in mysteries or religious secrets.
Mahout: The keeper and driver of an elephant.
Maid: A female domestic servant.
Maid of honour: This is a junior attendant position within the British Royal Household, and is junior to a Lady in Waiting. Historically, a queen regnant had eight maids of honour, whilst a queen consort had four.
Mail maker: An oatmeal seller.
Major domo: (1) An official who has the general management in a large household. (2) A chief minister.
Makar: A Scottish poet or bard, often considered to belong to the Royal Court. In 2002, the City of Edinburgh introduced its own Makar known as the Edinburgh Makar. Since then, several other Scottish cities have followed with their own Makar. A position of national laureate, entitled The Scots Makar, was established in 2004 by the Scottish Parliament, and since 2011 Edinburgh also has a Community Makar.
Makelaar: A Broker. (Dutch)
Maker: (1) An Inn Keeper. (2) A shoemaking term for the person who puts the shoe together by attaching the uppers to the soles. Also a shoeman.
Maker Up: (1) Someone in the textile industry involving putting a garment together. (2) A chemist or druggist.
Malacologist: Someone involved with the branch of natural history which treats the structure and habits of molluscs.
Malender: A farmer.
Malletier: A trunk maker.
Mal(t)ster: A person who makes or deals in malt.
Maltman: A person who makes or deals in malt.
Maltravers Herald Extraordinary: This is a current officer of arms extraordinary in England. As such, Maltravers is a royal herald, but he is not however a member of the College of Arms. The present office was created in 1887 by the Earl Marshal, who was also the Duke of Norfolk and Baron Maltravers. The office is known to have been held by a pursuivant to Lord Maltravers when he was deputy of Calais from 1540 to 1544.
Man at arms: A soldier.
Managing Owner: This is a shipowner who actively manages the commercial interests of his ship(s).
Manciple: A person in charge of the purchase and storage of food at an institution such as a college, monastery, or court.
Mandant: An employer.
Mandenmaker: A Dutch basket maker.
Mandriano: A herdsman. (Italian)
Mangler: Someone who operated a mangle (a wringer in the USA) which was a small hand operated machine with rollers which squeezed the water from washing.
Maniple: A company of foot soldiers in the Roman army.
Maniscalco: A blacksmith. (Italian)
Manoeuvre: A common worker.
Man of the Turf: A jockey. (Circa 1800)
Mantua maker: A bonnet maker.
Manuale: A manual labourer. (Italian)
Marbler: A worker in marble, or marble effects.
Marbreur: A marbler.
Marbrier: A marble cutter and polisher.
Marcaire: Someone who works in a stables.
Marchioness: The female equivalant of a marquis. This could refer to the wife or widow of a marquis or a noblewoman who holds the rank in her own right. This is above a countess but below a duchess.
Mareyeur: A fish seller. (French)
Margrave: A German nobleman of rank equivalent to an English marquis.
Marinaio: A sailor. (Italian)
Marinell: A sailor, or someone employed on a sea going vessel.
Mariner: A sailor, or someone employed on a sea going vessel.
Marmista: A marble cutter. (Italian)
Maronite: A member of a sect of Christians who lived on or around the mountains of Lebanon.
Marquess: The nobility rank between duke and earl.
Maquignon: A French horse dealer.
Marquis: (1) Originally the officer who guarded the marches or frontiers of a kingdom. (2) The nobility rank between a duke and an earl. The title was first given in England in 1386.
Marquise: The female equivalant of a marquis. This could refer to the wife or widow of a marquis or a noblewoman who holds the rank in her own right. A marquis is above a countess but below a duchess.
Marrow: A mining term for a partner, or assistant.
Marsdrager: A Dutch peddler.
Marshal(l): (1) Originally the officer who looked after the horses, especially those of a prince. (2) A high ranking military officer. (3) A junior legal clerk who accompanied a judge on circuit and performed secretarial duties. (4) Someone who would formally announce guests at audiences, balls, dinners, etc., as in a master of ceremonies.
Marshal of the Diplomatic Corps: This is a position within the British Royal Household which was created in 1920 to replace the Master of the Ceremonies. He is the Queen's link with the diplomatic community in London, arranges the annual Diplomatic Corps Reception by the Sovereign, organizes the regular presentation of credentials ceremonies for Ambassadors and High Commissioners, and supervises attendance of diplomats at state events. The Marshal is assisted in his duties by the Vice-Marshal of the Diplomatic Corps, the First Assistant Marshal, as well as other miscellaneous Assistant Marshals.
Marshman: These would be workers, typically in low lying areas such as the Norfolk Broads who would help maintain the waterways by cutting reeds and rushes for the thatching industry therefore keeping the waterways clear. There are still a few marshmen on the Norfolk Broads today.
Marteleur: A hammerman. (French)
Mason: A skilled worker in stone.
Massare: A farm manager or steward. (Italian)
Massaro: A manager of a country estate. (Italian)
Master: (1) A Merchant Navy officer in charge of a ship. (2) An archaic term for a Royal Navy navigational officer. (3) A school teacher.
Master at Arms (M.A.): (1) This is a senior naval rating (normally a warrant officer or a chief petty officer) who is responsible for discipline and law enforcement aboard ship. (2) An army officer responsible for physical training. (3) A crew member of a passenger vessel responsible for security and law enforcement.
Master Attendant: An officer at the Royal Dockyard below the rank of Superintendent.
Master Carver: This is a member of the Royal household in Scotland, a title which goes back to at least the 16th century. The role still exists today, and there is also a Master Carvers Association.
Master Gunner: The officer in charge of the gunnery equipment on a ship. This role has now been taken over by a senior commissioned gunner or a gunnery lieutenant.
Master Mariner (M.M.): A Merchant Navy Officer holding an "unlimited" or unrestricted certificate to allow him to command a ship. This is the highest level of professional qualification amongst mariners and Deck Officers. The holder of a restricted Master's certificate is not usually termed as a Master Mariner. The now defunct Extra Master used to be the highest available qualification. An unrestricted certificate was colloquially called a "Master's Ticket" or a "Master's.
Master of a hospital: A teacher.
Master of a ship: A teacher.
Master of pipe work: (1) A maker of water and drainage pipes. (2) A teacher.
Master of the Buckhounds: This is an obsolete political position within the British Royal Household and was attached to the Master of the Horse’s department. The role was abolished in 1901. The holder, who was always a nobleman, was also the Monarch’s representative at Ascot.
Master of the Ceremonies: This is an obsolete position within the British Royal Household, and was replaced by Marshal of the Diplomatic Corps in 1920. It’s believed to have originated in the reign of James I. The main function was to receive foreign dignitaries and present them to the monarch at court.
Master of the Great Wardrobe: The person involved with running the clothing and textile requirements of the Royal Family. The position was abolished in 1782. There was also a Deputy Master of the Great Wardrobe.
Master of the Harriers: This is an obsolete position within the British Royal Household which dated back to the 17th century. The role involved the care of the Royal harriers. The position lapsed in 1701, but was reinstated in 1730 as Master of the Harriers and Foxhounds. It was finally abolished in 1782. Previous holders include Robert Walpole, 1st Baron Walpole in 1738.
Master of the Harriers and Foxhounds: This is an obsolete position within the British Royal Household which dated back to the 17th century. Previously known as the Master of the Harriers and founded in the 17th century, this was renamed Master of the Harriers and Foxhounds in 1730, but abolished in 1782.
Master of the Hawks: This is an obsolete position within the British Royal Household which dates back to 1660. The office was abolished by Queen Anne in 1702, with the holder at the time, the Duke of Sty Albans receiving a pension. (Also known as Master Falconer)
Master of the Horse: This is a position within the British Royal Household which dates back to at least the 14th century. The holder was once a very important official, but today the Master of the Horse has a primarily ceremonial office, and rarely appears except on state occasions, or when the Sovereign is mounted on ceremonial occasions. All matters connected with the horses and formerly also the hounds of the sovereign, as well as the stables and coach houses, the stud, mews and previously the kennels, were within his jurisdiction. Today, some of the duties have been designated to others, and the Crown Equerry has daily charge of the Royal Mews, which provides vehicular transport for the Sovereign, both cars and horse-drawn carriages. Train travel is arranged by the Royal Travel Office, which also co-ordinates air transport.
Master of the Household: This is an important position within the British Royal Household which dates back to at least 1603. The primary function is as the operational head of the "below stairs" elements of the Royal Household of the Sovereign of the United Kingdom. He has charge of the domestic staff, from the Royal Kitchens, the pages and footmen, to the Housekeeper and her many staff. Since 2004 the Office of the Prince of Wales has included a Master of the Household. There is a vast array of people responsible to the Master of the House, including Deputy Master, Master’s Secretary, Lady Clerk to the Deputy Master, Chief Clerk, Queen's Flag Sergeant, Assistant to the Master(Food), Deputy Assistant Master (Food), Catering Office Administrator, Lady Clerk to the Assistant Master (Food), Royal Chef, Head Coffee Room Maid, Senior Sous Chef, Pastry Sous Chef, Sous Chef, Senior Cooks, Cooks, Apprentices, Assistant to the Master (General), Lady Clerk to the Assistant Master (General), Royal Florist, Palace Foreman, Palace Steward, Yeoman of the Royal Pantries, Queens Piper, assorted Yeoman, assorted Housekeepers etc., etc. Today, the Master of the Household’s Department is the largest in the Royal Household, with over 250 employees. The Department is split into various sub-sections, including, G (General) branch who are responsible for a wide range of duties, including greeting and looking after guests and members of the Royal Family, serving at functions, travel and luggage arrangements for the Queen’s journeys, valeting, the arrangement of flowers, managing the wine cellars and managing the porcelain, glass and plate pantries, all of which contain items of historical importance. The F (Food) branch is responsible for the preparation, cooking and presentation of food, for the Royal Family and employees, at all Royal residences. The H (Housekeeping) branch maintains the cleanliness, presentation and general upkeep of all accommodation at the Royal residences. Female Housekeeping Assistants also, on occasion, personally look after female guests. The C (Craft) branch are mainly based at Windsor and provide making, maintenance, restoration and conservation services to those responsible for furniture and interior furnishings across the Royal Households. The team include highly skilled craftspeople such a: upholsterers, French polishers, gilders and furniture restorers. Finally, the Central Office is responsible for the overall co-ordination, management and administration of the official events in The Queen’s Programme, including arranging the guest lists and seating plans. The Master of the Household's Department is also responsible for the administration of Windsor Castle and The Palace of Holyroodhouse which is carried out by a Superintendent based at each of the residences.
Master of the Household of Scotland: This is a position within the Royal Household in Scotland and goes back to at least the reign of James IV (1473-1513). It became hereditary in 1667, and has been held by various Earls of Argyll ever since.
Master of the Jewel Office: This is a position within the British Royal Household which dates back to at least 1445. The holders are responsible for running the Jewel Office in the Tower of London, which holds the Sovereign's jewellery. A Keeper of the Crown Jewels was first appointed in 1207, and the name has varied ever since. There is also a Keeper of the Jewel House.
Master of the Mint: (1) The highest official in the Royal Mint and dates back to at least the 14th century. The office was abolished as an independent position in 1870, thereafter being held as a subsidiary office of the Chancellor of the Exchequer. (2) A gardener. (Slang)
Master of the Queen's/King's Music: This is a position within the British Royal Household which probably goes back to 1626. Duties are not clearly defined, although it is generally expected the holder of the post will write music to commemorate important royal events, such as coronations, birthdays, anniversaries, marriages and deaths, and to accompany other ceremonial occasions. The holder may also act as the Sovereign’s adviser in musical matters. In musical terms this is probably comparable with the Poet Laureate. (Edward Elgar was one holder of the position in 1924)
Master of the Revels: This is an obsolete position within the British Royal Household which dates back to at least the 15th century. Originally the holder was responsible for overseeing royal festivities, known as revels, and he later became responsible for stage censorship, until this function was transferred to the Lord Chamberlain in 1624. However it appears that the Master of the Revels, who would normally have reported to the Lord Chamberlain, continued to perform the function on behalf of his superior until the English Civil War abruptly closed the London theatres in 1642. In Henry VII's time the Master of the Revels seems to have been a minor official of the household. In Henry VIII's court, however, the post became more important, and an officer of the Wardrobe was permanently employed to act under the Master of the Revels. The office continued almost until the end of the 18th century, although it operated with a rather reduced portfolio.
Master of the Robes: This is a semi dormant position within the British Royal Household for such times as the Sovereign is a King, which dates back to at least the early 17th century. The holder was responsible for the King's robes at times such as a coronation, the annual Order of the Garter service and the State Opening of Parliament. Since the reign of King Edward VII, the office has only been filled for coronations.
Master of the Rolls: A baker. (Slang)
Master of the Staghounds: This was a short lived position within the British Royal Household which was created in 1738 and abolished in 1782. It had responsible for looking after the Royal staghounds.
Master of the Temple: The preacher of the Temple Church in London. The church always has two clergy, namely the "Master of the Temple" and the "Reader of the Temple" respectively.
Master Shifter: Someone in the mines who kept the underground passages clear.
Master's Mate: An obsolete rating for a senior petty officer in the Royal Navy. Would now be called a sub-lieutenant.
Mastroquet: A Publican. (French)
Mate: An officer under the master of a merchant ship.
Matelot: A sailor. (French)
Materassaio: A bed or mattress maker. (Italian)
Mate of a watch: The second officer of a watch on a ship of war.
Matroos: A Dutch sailor.
Matross: Formerly a soldier set to help the gunners in an artillery train.
Mattoniao: A brick maker. (Italian)
Maurist: A member of the reformed Benedictine Congregation of St Maur, settled from 1618 at the abbey of St Maur-sur-Loire, near Saumur, notable for its great services to learning.
Mealman: A grain or flour dealer.
Mechanic: Someone who operated or repaired machines.
Medician: Someone in the medical profession.
Medicus: A Doctor. (Latin)
Melder: A corn miller.
Melisha: An archaic term for Militia.
Memoirist: A writer of memoirs.
Mendiant: A beggar.
Mendicante: A beggar. (Italian)
Mendicant: (1) A member of an order of friars that is forbidden to own property, and who work or beg for their living. (2) A beggar.
Menuisier: A carpenter and joiner. (French)
Mercantile Marine Superintendent: The officer in charge of the Mercantile Marine Office. (A body of personnel record keepers etc.)
Mercante: A merchant. (Italian)
Mercatrix: A buyer and seller of goods.
Mercator: A Merchant. (Latin)
Mercenarius: A day labourer. (Latin)
Mercer: A merchant or trader normally dealing in silk, cotton, woollen and linen goods. There is still a Mercers' Company today in London. They have their own archivist on firstname.lastname@example.org.
Merchant: This could indicate someone who traded on a large scale and with foreign countries, however a small shopkeeper just might describe himself as a merchant as well.
Merchant Captain: A Captain in the Merchant Navy.
Merchant Seaman: A seaman in the Merchant Navy whose ship would normally carry goods or people.
Merciaio girovago: A peddler. (Italian)
Mercier: A haberdasher.
Meretrix: A Prostitute. (Latin)
Merinell: A sailor.
Mescitore-di-vino: A wine seller. (Italian)
Mesne Lord: The lord of the manor who holds land from a higher lord and who has subsequently sub-let it to a tenant.
Mess John: A Scotch Presbyterian teacher or parson. (Slang, circa 1800)
Messo: (1) A messenger. (Italian) (2) A Town crier. (Italian)
Messor: An usher in a court.
Metallurgist: Someone who would study the physical and chemical behaviour of metals and alloys.
Metal Man: A mining occupation for someone who increased the height of a mining shaft.
Metayer: A farmer who pays his rent in crops rather than money.
Meter: Someone responsible for ensuring a measurement. This could be corn, fish, coal etc. You also get Licensed Sworn Meter’s.
Methodist: A member of a sect of Christians founded by John Wesley (1703-91), noted for the strictness of its discipline.
Metselaar: A Dutch bricklayer.
Meunier: A miller.
Midshipman: An officer cadet or the lowest ranked commissioned officer in the Royal Navy. Between a cadet and a sub-lieutenant.
Militia(man): A body of men enrolled and drilled as soldiers who would be liable to duty at time of perceived invasion or attack. They would only be used within their own country and for defence purposes.
Miller: A person who owns or works in a grain or corn mill.
Milling Cove: A boxer. (Circa 1800)
Milliner: A hat maker or seller.
Millwright: Someone who designs, builds, or repairs grain mills or mill machinery.
Minatore: A miner. (Italian)
Miner: (1) Someone who works in mine. (2) A sapper in the army.
Mineralist: Someone interested in the study of minerals.
Minerario: A miner. (Italian)
Mine Uncle's : A pawnbrokers shop. (Slang, circa 1800)
Mineur: A miner (Dutch)
Miniaturist: A painter of miniatures.
Minister: A clergyman, especially in Presbyterian or non-conformist churches.
Minor Clergy: A young chimney sweep. (Circa 1800)
Minstrel: A performer of music or a storyteller.
Minter: (1) Someone who mints money. (2) An inventor.
Missionary: Normally someone who travelled overseas or into urban areas by a religious community to spread its gospel.
Mistress: A female in charge. Normally of a school or a hospital.
Mistress of the Robes: This is the senior lady within the British Royal Household which dates back to at least 1553. Previously responsible for the Queen's clothes and jewellery, the post has evolved, and now has the responsibility for arranging the schedule of attendance of the Ladies in Waiting on the Queen, along with various duties at State ceremonies. In more recent times the position is usually held by a duchess.
Mite: A slang term for a cheesemonger (Circa 1800)
Moabite: A bailiff. (Circa 1800)
Modemaakster: A Dutch milliner.
Modiste: A Dutch milliner.
Moine: A monk.
Molenaar: A miller (Dutch)
Molenmaker: A windmill maker. (Dutch)
Molinaro: A miller. (Italian)
Molitor: A miller. (German)
Moll: A lady of "ill repute".
Monaca: A nun. (Italian)
Monger: A generic term for a trader specializing in a specific type of goods. (i.e. fishmonger, ironmonger etc.)
Monk's Cloth Maker: A maker of heavy a cotton fabric of basket weave, used mainly for bedspreads.
Monthly Nurse: An experienced woman who would attend a mother with a new baby for the first month of its life.
Montreur: A showman.
Mopsqueezer: A housemaid. (Circa 1800)
Moravian(s): A follower of the Moravian Church founded by followers of John Huss in 1457. John Huss himself was born in Bohemia around 1371 and burned at the stake on 6 July 1415 for heresy.
Mosaicist: Someone who worked with mosaics. Also known as a Tessellator.
Morphologist: A specialist in the science of organic form, of the development of the forms of living organisms.
Motettist: A composer of Motet-a sacred cantata of several unconnected movements.
Mouchard: A French police spy.
Moucher: A beggar.
Mousquetaire: A musketeer.
Mousse: A ship's boy.
Mouterer: Someone who grinds grain.
Muddie: A worker who would hand dig for clay, Typically in the Hoo Peninsula in Kent.
Mudir: The governor of an Egyptian province.
Mudlark: Someone who scavenged in river mud for items of value, especially in London during the late 18th and 19th centuries.
Mountebank: Someone who sells fake medicine. Also known as a quack salver.
Mugger: A tinker or vendor of earthenware.
Mug house: An alehouse.
Mugnaio: A miller. (Italian)
Muleskinner: A driver of mules. A teamster.
Muleteer: Someone who looked after mules.
Mumper: A beggar.
Muratore: A mason or bricklayer. (Italian)
Muscologist: A botanist who studies mosses.
Muscovite: A native of Moscow.
Musketeer: A soldier armed with a musket.
Mussulman: A Moslem or Mohammedan.
Mustang: A naval officer from the merchant service during the American Civil War.
Muster Master: The senior officer who takes a muster or inspects his troops.
Mute: An undertaker's servant, who stands at the door of a person lying in state: so named from being supposed to be mute with grief. (Circa 1800)
Myologist: The study of muscles on the body.
Myrmidon: A constable's assistant, or a watchmen. (Circa 1800)
Mythologist: Someone who writes on mythology.
Naaister: A Dutch seamstress.
Nailer: Someone who made nails. Also known as a nail maker. This was a thriving industry in the Midlands in the 19th century.
Naval Cadet: A student for an officer rank in the Navy.
Narrow Weaver: This is a weaver of tapes or ribbons.
Naturalist: Someone who studies nature, especially zoology and botany.
Nautch girls: In India, dancing girls who often danced a type of ballet.
Navigator: (1) A manual labourer digging a canal (navigations)-hence the term "navvy". (2) A sea explorer-for example, Henry the Navigator (1394-1460). (3) A person skilled in the art of navigation aboard a ship. For example a Royal Navy navigation officer.
Navigator's Yeoman: A Royal Navy term for a rating working under the orders of a navigation officer who would be trained in charts and their correction.
Navvy: (1) A manual labourer, usually involving digging canals or working on the railway. (2) A Royal Navy nickname for the ship's navigating officer. Officers refer to and address him as "Pilot".
Nazarite: A Jew who vowed to abstain from strong drink.
Nazir: A native official in an Anglo-Indian court who serves summonses.
Neatherd(er): A cowherd.
Neck Stamper: The boy who collects the pots belonging to an alehouse, sent out with beer to private houses.
Necrographer: Someone who writes obituary notices.
Necrologist: Someone who gives an account of deaths.
Needlemaker: Someone who made needles. Needles were believed to have been made in England as early as 1545. Whitechapel was a big needle making area but this virtually died out with areas of Warwickshire and Worcestershire taking over. There were many different types of needles, including knitting, darning, glovers, tambour (like a hook) and surgeons needles. There is still a Worshipful Company of Needlemakers' of the City of London.
Needlewoman: A very general term for a female who carried out repairs to clothing or did decorative sewing. A seamstress.
Negoziante: A shopkeeper. (Italian)
Neologist: An innovator in language or theology.
Neophyte: Someone newly admitted to the priesthood or a monastery.
Nephalist: A person with total abstinence from alcoholic drinks.
Neurohypnologist: The study of hypnotism.
Neurologist: An expert in the science of the nerves.
Nightman : (1) A cesspit emptier. (2) A night watchman.
Night Watchman: A person who looked after the security of an otherwise unoccupied building at night.
Nimgimmer: A physician or surgeon, particularly those who cure venereal disease. (circa 1800)
Nipcheese: A Royal Navy nickname for the ship's Purser, or sometimes Paymaster. For effect, Mr was sometimes added as a prefix.
Nipper: This is a Royal Navy term for those whose job it was to 'nip' a sailing ship's anchor cable to the belt activated by the capstan when the anchor was being weighed. They were usually the smallest and youngest men on board. Hence the word 'nipper' has come to mean a youngster.
Nippy: A waitress in the J. Lyons & Co. tea shops. In the late 19th century, a J. Lyons waitress was called a "Gladys".
Nobleman: Someone above a commoner.
Nobmaker: (1) A maker of walking stick tops. (2) A maker of toe caps for shoes.
Nobthatcher: A peruke maker. (A peruke is a wig, especially one worn by men in the 17th and 18th centuries)
Nocher: A pilot or oarsman.
Nolt driver: A cattle drover.
Nomographer: Someone versed in the art of drawing up laws.
Noon Tender: This would have been a docker or a trusted shipworker who would look after goods in the dock whilst the Officers were absent.
Norfolk Herald Extraordinary: This is an officer of arms in England. As an officer extraordinary, Norfolk is a royal herald, although not a member of the corporation of the College of Arms in London. Going back to 1539 this officer was a herald to the dukes of Norfolk. The office has not always been taken but rather filled on an ad-hoc basis.
Nose Gent: A nun. (Slang, circa 1800)
Nosologist: Someone who studies the classification of diseases.
Nostradamus: A "quack" doctor.
Notaro: A notary. (Italian)
Notary: A lawyer or someone who has legal training and is licensed to perform minor legal duties-for example
witnessing signatures on documents or dealing with non-contentious matters.
Noter: Someone who takes notes. An annotator.
Nourrice: A wet nurse.
Novice: In inmate of a convent or nunnery who has yet to take a vow.
Noviciate: This is someone who has applied to join a monastery or convent, and is in the period of being a novice prior to taking their vows. Also a novitiate.
Novitiate: This is someone who has applied to join a monastery or convent, and is in the period of being a novice prior to taking their vows. Also a noviciate.
Nugging House Keeper: A brothel keeper. (Circa 1800)
Nullipara: A woman who has never given birth to a child, but probably not a virgin.
Number One: A Royal Navy slang for the First Lieutenant.
Numismatologist: Someone who studies coins and medals in relation to history.
Nun: A female who, under a vow, secludes herself in a religious house, to give her time to devotion.
Nuncio: A messenger. Originally an ambassador from the Pope to an emperor or king.
Nurse: (1) A person trained to care for the sick or infirm, especially in a hospital. (2) A Royal Navy term for the executive officer of a ship in charge of the welfare and instruction of midshipmen. Also Snotties Nurse.
Nurse Child: (1) A mother who would look after another woman's child for money. Very often the mother would already have her own children. (2) Someone who looked after what would be called a foster child today. In particular where the child involved wasn't an infant. It wasn't unheard of for the poor law unions to offer out orphaned or illegitimate children. The "adopters" might receive a few shillings a week for their trouble. Before 1927 adoption didn't officially exist. It's also possible children were moved to locations where living conditions were healthier, and this sometimes would involve staying with extended families.
Nurse maid: A girl who takes care of children.
Nurser: A nurse.
Nursery man: A man who owns or works a nursery and is employed in cultivating plants.
Nursing Father: A foster father.
Nutrice: A wetnurse. (Italian)
Oarsman: Someone who rows with an oar.
Oboist: A player of the oboe.
Obstetrician: Pertaining to midwifery. Today many obstetricians are also gynecologists.
Occultist: Someone who believes in the occult.
Octogenarian: Someone who is between 80 & 89 years old.
Odd fellow: A member of a secret benevolent society called Oddfellows.
Odd man: A day labourer.
Odontologist: The origin and development of teeth.
Oeconimus: A steward or manager.
Oenophile: A wine expert.
Oil and Colourman: This is someone who sold oil for cooking, lighting, and paints, which were then mixed with a variety of pigments and linseed oil to achieve the desired colour.
Oilman: A person who makes or sells oil. (To light lamps for example)
Oiseleur: A bird catcher.
Oiselier: A bird seller.
Old Man: Originally a slang term for the commander of a merchant vessel.
Oleiculteur: A French olive grower.
Oliandolo: An oil merchant. (Italian)
Olitor(y): Someone producing fruit or vegetables for the kitchen.
Olivetan: A member of an order of Benedictine monks founded in 1313, the original house being at Monte Oliveto, near Siena in Italy.
Ollam: A doctor or master among the ancient Irish.
Ombrellaio: An umbrella maker. (Italian)
Oncologist: A branch of medicine dealing with cancer. From the Ancient Greek onkos meaning mass or tumour.
Onomatologist: Someone involved in the Science covering derivation of names.
Onsetter: A mining term involving moving the coal wagons about underground.
Operarius: A day labourer. (Latin)
Ophthalmologist: A specialist of the eyes.
Oppasser: A caretaker (Dutch)
Optician: A maker of telescopes, microscopes, spectacles, opera glasses etc.
Orafo: A goldsmith. (Italian)
Orator: A plaintiff or petitioner.
Orciolaio: A potter. (Italian)
Orderly: (1) An attendant who does routine non medical work in a hospital. (2) A soldier assigned to attend and perform various tasks for a superior officer.
Ordinary Keeper: An Innkeeper with fixed prices.
Ordinary Seaman: A seaman aged over 18 who hasn't yet qualified as an Able Seaman.
Orefice: A goldsmith.
Organ grinder: Someone who used to play a musical hand-organ by cranking a handle.
Organist: Someone who played the organ, usually in a church.
Organista: A Church organist. (Italian)
Orgelmaker: A Dutch organ maker.
Orientalist: Someone with an interest or knowledge of eastern languages.
Orismologist: Someone involved in the science of defining technical terms.
Orleanist: This is a person favourable to the claims of the Orleans family to the throne of France. (The Duke of Orleans, was the brother of Louis XIV.)
Ornatrix: A Hairdresser. (Latin)
Ornithologist: A person involved in the study of birds.
Orologiaio: A watch maker. (Italian)
Orpellaio: A tinsel maker. (Italian)
Orraman: Someone who does part time work on a farm.
Orthographer: Someone who spells words correctly.
Orthopædist: A specialist in the art or process of curing deformities of the body, especially in childhood.
Ortolano: A grocer. (Italian)
Osier Peeler: This is usually a child or a woman who would prepare the willow or osiers ready for basket making which would involve stripping off the bark.
Osier Worker: Anything with the word osier in probably involves making baskets from osier which is a water willow.
Oste: An Inn keeper. (Italian)
Ostiary: (1) A church doorkeeper. (2) Someone who is ordained in the lowest of the former minor orders of the Roman Catholic Church.
Ostler. A stableman at an inn. Also a hostler.
Ottonaio: Someone who works with brass. (Italian)
Outcrier: An auctioneer.
Outdoor Worker: It’s difficult to be precise here, but it normally refers to light farm work or picking crops etc. Usually refers to a female.
Outfitter: Someone who finishes an outfit-as in a tailor who would put the final touches to an item of clothing.
Outilleur: A tool maker.
Outlander: A foreigner.
Outpatient: Someone who receives help from a hospital, but lives outside of it.
Out pensioner: A non-resident pensioner.
Outrider: A mounted servant who attends a carriage.
Outroper: (1) Formerly an officer in London who seized the goods of foreigners sold elsewhere rather than in the public market. (2) An auctioneer.
Out sentry: A sentry who guards the entrance to a place at a distance.
Out scout: An advance scout.
Overlord: A lord over other lords-a feudal superior.
Overman: A mining term for a supervisor who would usually check the mine each morning before the miners entered it. (Usually in Scotland).
Oversman: An umpire appointed to decide between the differing judgment of two arbiters.
Overseer: A minor official of a parish attached to the workhouse or poorhouse. (Circa 1600-1834)
Ovilius: A Shepherd. (Latin)
Owler: A smuggler of sheep or wool.
Owner: (1) A generic term for the registered owner of a ship. (2) A Royal Navy slang term for a Captain of a ship.
Oxman: A man who tends to, or drives oxen.
Oxonian: An inhabitant or a native of Oxford. Often a student or graduate of Oxford University.
Oyer and Terminer (Commission of): Someone who would determine the outcome of serious crimes within a particular county.
Oyster Dredger: Someone who caught oysters, normally from dragging a net along the sea bottom from a boat.
Oyster Floater: This is a method of cleaning the oysters from any impurities they might have. (From sewage etc) This would have taken place either in a shallow barge made so that water runs over them, or in a tank with running water.
Oyster wench: A woman who sells oysters. (Also Oyster Wife, or Oyster woman).
Paarddriller: A Dutch horse trainer.
Pachter: A Dutch tenant farmer.
Packer: (1) A generic term for someone who packed goods. (2) A pit term for someone who would stow the waste.
Packman: A pedlar who carries a pack.
Pad: A footpad. A robber. (circa 1800)
Pad Borrower: A horse thief. (circa 1800)
Padishah: The Sovereign of Great Britain as a ruler of India.
Padre: A title given to priests in some countries.
Page: (1) A male servant or attendant. (2) A shepherd's servant, whether boy or man. (3) A stable boy. (4) A youth acting as a knight's attendant in the first stages of training for knighthood.
Page of Honour: This is a ceremonial position within the British Royal Household which dates back to at least the 17th century and King Charles II. It requires attendance on state occasions, but does not now involve the daily duties which were once attached to the office of page. The only physical activity involved is usually no more than carrying the train of the Queen’s dress. It is usually a privilege granted to teenage sons of members of the nobility and especially of existing senior members of the Royal Household. Today, Pages of Honour feature in British Coronations, the State Opening of Parliament, and other ceremonies. There are First, Second, Third and Fourth Page of Honour. They would normally wear a scarlet frock coat with gold trimmings, a white satin waistcoat, white breeches and hose, white gloves, black buckled shoes and a lace cravat and ruffles. A sword is sometimes also worn with the outfit and a feathered three-cornered hat is sometimes worn as well.
Page of the Backstairs: This is a senior servant position within the British Royal Household who personally attends to the Sovereign and or spouse. Their duties include serving meals and tidying the personal apartments. They also allow access to other members of the Royal Household into The Queen and Prince Philip's private rooms, and their office is situated near to the backstairs of Buckingham Palace and The Queen's lift.
Page of the Presence: This is a position within the British Royal Household. who acts as a personal attendant to Royal visitors. During events at Buckingham Palace such as receptions, state visits, garden parties, investitures etc., they are positioned at the Grand Entrance and supervise the arrival of guests and heads of state. They also man the Privy Purse door where members of the British government and the daily red boxes are received. Other duties might include looking after the Buckingham Palace’s visitors' book and they are also responsible for the service of meals to the Royal Family.
Pagliaiolo: A mattress maker. (Italian)
Pailleur: A straw dealer.
Painter and Limner: This is a position within the Royal Household in Scotland, and Court Painters go back to at least 1581, whilst the Painter and Limner post was created in 1702. The duties included "drawing pictures of our [the Monarch's] person or of our successors or others of our royal family for the decorment of our houses and palaces". The role till exists today, however, since 1932 the appointment has been unpaid and there has been no requirement for the holder to produce works for either the monarch or the state.
Paintress: A woman who would hand paint pottery.
Palæobotanist: The science or study of fossil plants.
Palæographer: The study of ancient writings and modes of writing.
Palæologist: A student of antiquity.
Palætiologist: The study of the science which explains past conditions by the law of causation.
Palatine: An official attached to a royal household.
Paletot Maker: A maker of a loose fitting overcoat.
Palfurner: A groom or someone in charge of horses.
Palindromist: An inventor of palindromes.
Palingman: An eel seller.
Palingwright: A maker of wooden fences.
Pall bearer: One of the mourners at a funeral who used to hold up the corners of the pall.
Palmer: (1) A medieval term for a pilgrim from or to the Holy Land. Possibly distinguished by carrying a branch of palm tree. (2) A cheat at cards or dice.
Palmist(er): Someone who tells fortunes by using the lines on the palm of the hand.
Palsgrave: Someone who has charge of a royal household.
Pamphleteer: Someone who writes pamphlets.
Pandour: (1) A Hungarian foot-soldier in the Austrian service. (2) A robber. (Also Pandoor)
Paneler: A saddler.
Panetier: A bread store keeper.
Pannager: Someone who had the right to graze pigs on acorns on the common.
Pannarius: A clothier.
Pannelaio: A seller of wool. (Italian)
Panniere: A basket maker. (Italian)
Pannier Man: A servant belonging to the Temple and Gray's Inn, whose duty is to announce a dinner. This would include either blowing a horn or calling out the word "manger". (Circa 1800)
Pannikin Maker: A metal worker who makes small pans or cups. Often in tin.
Pantler: A butler. (Circa 1800)
Pantler of Scotland: This is an obsolete position within the Royal Household in Scotland. The now defunct term pantler or panter referred to the officer responsible for the pantry or food supplies in general in a royal court.
Pantomimist: An actor or dancer in a pantomime. This could also be a composer of Pantomimes.
Pantouflier: A slipper maker.
Papermaker: A person who made paper.
Parapluiemaker: A Dutch unbrella maker.
Pardoner: A medieval cleric who would sell pardons.
Pargeter: A skilled craftsman in decorative plasterwork.
Parish Bull: A parson. (Slang, circa 1800)
Parish Clerk: The role of a parish clerk was often a job for life and included arranging baptisms and communions, ringing the church bells, leading the responses at services and maintaining the parish registers. A temporal role rather than a spiritual one.
Paritor(y): A Civil Servant or ecclesiastical worker of the archdeaconry court.
Parqueteur: A floor layer. (French)
Parroco: A Parish Priest. (Italian)
Parson: A parish priest in the Church of England, or more loosely, any clergyman.
Parson's Journeyman: A curate. (Circa 1800)
Passage Broker: This is someone licensed by the Government to sell or let steerage from the UK. The broker would be required to lodge a bond with the Government.
Pastaro: A shepherd. (Italian)
Pastor: (1) A nonconformist religious minister. (2) A shepherd or herdsman.
Paticer: A pastry cook.
Pattenmaker: A maker of high heeled shoes, largely made out of wood, with sometimes metal heels designed to raise the feet above the mud and effluence to be found in the streets. They would be strapped to ordinary shoes. There is still a Worshipful Company of Patternmakers' of the City of London.
Patternmaker: Someone who makes patterns for sewing, carpentry, or metal working.
Paumier: A tennis court keeper.
Pavior: Someone who laid or repaired stone or paving slabs, as in a pavement. The best stones came from Scotland, Jersey or Guernsey. London was paved in the early 1600's.
Paysagiste: A landscape painter.
Peace Keeper: A dog whipper. (A minor church official who kept stray dogs out of church yards.)
Peace Maker: A dog whipper. (A minor church official who kept stray dogs out of church yards.)
Pearl Button Maker: This is the process where mother of pearl is cut into smaller shapes to make buttons, and would include drilling the holes, polishing, and sorting into size. The buttons would then go to a carder who would sew them onto cards ready for sale.
Pedagog: A teacher.
Pedall: An officer of the church or a beadle.
Peddler: A travelling vendor of goods. An uncertainty regarding their honesty often existed.
Pedlar: A travelling vendor of goods. An uncertainty regarding their honesty often existed.
Pedegogus: A Schoolteacher. (Latin)
Peeler: A slang term for a Policeman. (After Sir Robert Peel).
Peggy: A Merchant Navy slang for the person tasked to keep the mess clean.
Peigneur: A wool comber. (French)
Peintre: A painter. (French)
Pellicciaio: A furrier. (Italian)
Pellitor: A Civil Servant or ecclesiastical worker of the archdeaconry court.
Peloteur: A ball maker. (French)
Pencerdd: The chief bard of a Welsh principality. A bard was expected to know a certain amount of genealogy to preserve the memory of its local people, and also would have included many years training in such subjects as grammar and, metrics. Only a Pencerdd could teach a bard. (Welsh: Pen=chief, Cerdd=art)
Pendicler: A sub tenant.
Penman: (1) A craftsman of calligraphy. (2) A writer, journalist, or author.
Penny pie maker: Someone who made cheap pies, bread or cakes for selling on the street.
Pensioner: This originally was a soldier who had retired from the Army and receiving a pension.
Perinatologist: A sub-specialty of obstetrics concerned with the care of the fetus and complicated high-risk pregnancies. Perinatology is also known as maternal-fetal medicine.
Perforst Man: A seaman taken out of a merchant ship to serve in the Royal Navy.
Peripatetic: A person who travels from place to place.
Perpetual Curate: A priest who was nominated by a lay rector and licensed by a bishop to serve a parish which otherwise wouldn't have a vicar.
Perrier: A quarryman.
Person: A clergyman.
Peruke Maker: A wig maker, especially one worn by men in the 17th and 18th centuries. The Peruke is believed to have been introduced in Paris in 1629.
Perruquier: A barber or a wig maker. (French)
Pescatore: A fisherman. (Italian)
Pescivendolo: A seller of fish. A fishmonger. (Italian)
Peterman: (1) A fisherman. (2) Someone who would blow up safes-as in a bank robber.
Pettenmaker: A Dutch cap maker.
Pettifogger: (1) A petty, unscrupulous lawyer. (2) A lawyer who only takes on petty or minor cases.
Pettinaio: A combmaker. (Italian)
Petty Boy: The user of a tool called a Petty Boy. This was used in the shoe making industry to smooth down stitching.
Petty Constable: A parish constable as opposed to a high constable.
Petty Officer: A non-commissioned officer in the Navy.
Peuterer: Someone who crafted items from pewter. Pewter is essentially tin, but has to be worked with other metals.
Pewterer: Someone who crafted items from pewter. There is still a Worshipful Company of Pewterers' in London. Pewter is essentially tin, but has to be worked with other metals.
Pezzaio: A worker in leather. (Italian)
Phoenix Man: Firemen belonging to an insurance office. Also called firedrakes. (Circa 1800)
Philologist: Someone who studies classical languages or is fond of words.
Phrenologist: Someone who studies the science of the functions of the brain.
Physic: An unspecified general term for medical people.
Piannellaio: A slipper maker. (Italian)
Pictaciarii. A shoemaker. Although frequently less prestigious than a shoemaker.
Pictor: A Painter. (Latin)
Piece Work: In which a worker was paid on the number of goods he produced rather than on a regular wage basis.
Pietist: Someone who belongs to a 17th century German religious sect.
Piffero: Someone who played the fife. (Italian)
Pigman: (1) A herder or keeper of pigs. (2) A dealer in crockery.
Pike keeper: The keeper of a turnpike.
Pikeman: (1) A soldier who would carry a pike. (2) A pit term for a miner using a pick. (3) A turnpike gate keeper.
Pilgrim fathers: The colonists who went to America in the ship Mayflower, and founded New England in 1620.
Pilot: A licensed mariner who guides ships through dangerous waters, or in and out of a port. (2) A helmsman of a ship.
Pinder: The manorial officer in charge of the pinfold. (An enclosure where stray animals were kept)
Pinfold: The manorial officer in charge of the pinfold. (An enclosure where stray animals were kept)
Pioneer: A foot soldier who goes in advance of the main army to prepare the way.
Piper to the Queen Mother: This is an obsolete position within the British Royal Household which became defunct upon the death of the Queen Mother in 2002. The position was first established in 1953. The principal duty was to play in the gardens of Clarence House at 9am for 15 minutes on three days a week, and at state events as and when requested. The was no remuneration for these duties and the appointment was considered to be an honour. Two of the previous Piper’s to the Queen Mother- Pipe Majors John Spoore and Christopher Macpherson played at the Queen Mother's funeral on 9 April 2002. There is also a Piper to the Sovereign.
Piper to the Sovereign: This is a position within the British Royal Household which goes back to 1843. The holder of the office is responsible for playing the bagpipes at the Sovereign's request. The office has been held continuously since then (apart from a brief interruption during World War II) with the piper's main duty to play at 9am for 15 minutes under the Sovereign's window, as well as state occasions. The idea of having bagpipes played is believed to have originated when Queen Victoria and Prince Albert visited the Marquess of Breadalbane at Taymouth Castle in the Scottish Highlands and discovered the Marquess had his own personal piper. There is also a Piper to the Queen Mother.
Piqueur: An outrider.
Piquier: A pike man.
Pirriatiri: A stone quarry worker. (Italian)
Pisteur: A spy. (French)
Pistor: A Baker. (Latin)
Pittore: A painter. (Italian)
Plaintiff: In law, the person who commences a suit against another person.
Plaiter: Someone who plaits or braids.
Plasher: Someone who would plant and tend animal proof hedges.
Plaqueur: A silver plater. (French)
Platelayer: Normally a semi skilled labourer who would lay or repair railway track.
Plater: Someone who plates articles with a coating of gold or silver.
Player: An actor or musician.
Playwright: A writer of plays, or someone who adapts dramatic compositions for the stage.
Pleacher: Someone who would plant and tend animal proof hedges.
Ploeger: A Dutch ploughman.
Plombeur: A customs house worker.
Plombier: (1) A lead worker. (2) A plumber.
Ploughman: An agricultural labourer who would plough the fields with the use of a horse or horses.
Plumassier: A feather merchant. (French)
Plumber: Someone who installs and repairs pipes and plumbing, once made from lead, with lead solder for the joints. The Romans used lead piping and there was a well established plumber's guild in London in 1365. There is still a Worshipful Company of Plumbers.
P. L. W: Power loom weaver.
Podiatrist: Someone in the medical profession who specialises in the care of feet, ankles and the lower leg.
Poetaster: A writer of very poor verse. Similar to rhymester or versifier.
Poet laureate: This is a poet officially appointed by a government or a conferring institution The holder of the position is expected to compose poems for special events and occasions. The origins are vague. King James I essentially created the position as it is known today for Ben Jonson in 1617, although Jonson's appointment does not seem to have been made formally. The office was a development from the practice in earlier times when minstrels and versifiers formed part of the king's retinue. The title, as a Royal Office goes back to 1670. Prior to that, Geoffrey Chaucer was called Poet Laureate in 1389 receiving an allowance of wine for the privilege. Other Poets laureate include William Wordsworth and Alfred, Lord Tennyson. Today, the UK also has a Children’s poet laureate.
Pointsman: A railway worker who would operate the points on a track.
Polisseur: A polisher. (French)
Politieagent: A Dutch policeman.
Poliziotto: A policeman. (Italian)
Pollaiolo: A chicken butcher. (Italian)
Polymathist: A person with a knowledge of many arts and sciences.
Polysomnographist: Someone who evaluates and treats sleep disorders.
Pompier: (1) A fireman. (2) A pump maker.
Pompiere: A fireman. (Italian)
Pontier: A bridge keeper.
Pontonier: Someone in charge of a pontoon. (Also a Pontonnier).
Pony Putter: The driver of a pony that might pull the coal wagons in a pit.
Pookman: A porter.
Porion: A fireman in a mine.
Pork butcher: Someone who slaughters pigs.
Port Admiral: An Admiral in charge of a navy port.
Portalettere: A postman. (Italian)
Port Authority: An individual or a body who is responsible for the administration of a port area.
Portcullis Pursuivant: This is a junior officer of arms at the College of Arms in London. The office is named after the Portcullis chained Or badge of the Beauforts, which was a favourite device of King Henry VII. King Henry's mother was Lady Margaret Beaufort. The office was instituted circa 1485, quite possibly at the time of Henry's coronation.
Portefaix: A porter. (French)
Porti(o)ner: An owner or joint owner of land.
Portman: An inhabitant of a port-town, or one of the Cinque Ports.
Portreeve: This is the title of a historical official in England or Wales possessing authority, either, political, administrative, or fiscal, over a town. The details of the office have fluctuated and evolved greatly over time. The term derives from the word port (which historically meant a market town or walled town, and not specifically a seaport); and the word reeve, meaning a high-ranking supervisory official. The origins of the position go back to the reign of Edward the Elder, (the son of Alfred the Great) who, in order to ensure that taxes were correctly made, banned trade outside of a 'port' or duly appointed place for trading, without the portreeve or another trusted person being present. At the time they had a role as a fiscal supervisor, very similar to a modern day customs and revenue officer.
Poseur: A stone layer. (French)
Possidense: An Italian landowner.
Postbode: A Dutch messenger or postman.
Post Boy: A guard on a mail coach. He would normally sit on the outside of the coach and blow his horn when approaching tollgates or post houses.
Post Captain: In the Navy, an officer holding a commission as a captain, as distinct from an officer with the courtesy title of captain.
Posticheur: A wig maker. (French)
Postier: A post office worker. (French)
Postilion: Someone who rides the near side leading horse to guide them whilst drawing a coach.
Postillion: Someone who rides the near side leading horse to guide them whilst drawing a coach.
Postino: A postman. (Italian)
Postman: A worker involved in the sorting or delivery of letters and parcels. (before 1883 they were called Letter Carriers)
Post Nointer: A house painter. (Circa 1800)
Postulant: This generally indicates a person who has applied to join a monastery or convent, and would still be a novice since vows wouldn't yet have been taken. The length of time someone would remain a postulate would vary according to the monastery or convent but the person would generally participates as fully as possible in the life of the community during this period. The period of training is called a novitiate or noviciate.
Potard: A clerk in a chemist.
Potisar: A pastry chef.
Potter: Someone who makes pottery.
Potwaller: Someone entitled to vote in a certain borough by virtue of having boiled a pot there. (Circa 1800)
Potwalloner: Someone entitled to vote in a certain borough by virtue of having boiled a pot there. (Circa 1800)
Potwalloper: (1) Someone entitled to vote in a certain borough by virtue of having boiled a pot there. There were up to 25 such boroughs throughout England. Southwark was the only London borough this applied to. (2) A trusted prisoner in jail who made sure cell-buckets (used as an overnight toilet) were cleaned each morning.
Poudrier: A gunpowder maker. (French)
Pouldiller: A poulterer. (French)
Poulter: A dealer in poultry and game. There is still a Worshipful Company of Poulters' of the City of London.
Poulterer: A thief who slits open an envelope to steal the contents. (Circa 1800)
Poundkeeper: The manorial officer in charge of the pinfold. (An enclosure where stray animals were kept)
Powder Monkey: A Royal Navy term for someone who carried the gunpowder up to the guns on a ship. It helped if the person was short, as it made working in confined spaces easier and also reduced the chances of being shot when in action.
Praedo: A Pirate. (Latin)
Prebendary: A member of a chapter of a college or cathedral who held the tithes and dues of a parish that came under the perculiar jurisdiction.
Precentor: The person responsible for the music in a cathedral.
Prelate: A high ranking member of the clergy. (Latin)
Prepositor: A school monitor.
Presbyter: (1) An elder. (2) A minister or priest between a bishop and a deacon.
Press Gang: An archaic term for naval ratings, led by an officer, who went ashore and forcibly recruited men into naval service. Merchant seaman were much in demand as they already had experience at sea and needed less training. In theory, "new recruits" had to be aged between 18 and 55. Press Gang's would be paid based on the number of people "recruited". It's believed to have been last used during the Napoleonic wars (1803-1815).
Pressman: The operator of a printing press.
Presta-ronzini: A horse dealer. (Italian)
Pricklouse: A tailor. (Circa 1800)
Priest: An ordained minister above a deacon and below that of a bishop who was authorized to celebrate the mass and hear confession.
Priester: A Catholic Priest.
Prieur: The Superior of a convent. (French)
Prigger: A horse thief.
Primare: A university or college principal.
Primer: A university or college principal.
Prince bishop: A bishop who was also the civil ruler or prince of his diocese.
Prince Consort: The husband of a reigning queen.
Prince Imperial: The son of an emperor.
Prince of Wales: The eldest son of the British sovereign.
Principal Painter in Ordinary: This is an obsolete Royal appointment by the King or Queen going back to the 17th century and has been awarded to a number of artists, nearly all portraitists. It was different to the role of Sergeant Painter, but similar to the earlier role of "King's Painter". Sir Anthony van Dyck and Sir Joshua Reynolds have previously held the position. There was also a Flower Painter in Ordinary, Miniature Painter in Ordinary, and a Marine Painter in Ordinary.
Print Compositor: Someone who set up the type in a printers.
Printer's Devil: An apprentice or errand boy in a printing works.
Prize Master: A naval term for the officer who would take charge of a captured ship.
Probationer: (1) An unordained person who is licensed to preach. (2) Someone who is on probation or trial.
Probator: A generic term for an examiner. Often to do with the gospel.
Prochain: A neighbour. (French)
Proctor: (1) Someone who was employed in either civil or ecclesiastical causes. Probably equal to a solicitor or attorney in common law. (2) A university official originally at Oxford or Cambridge who attends to the morals of the students and enforces university regulations. Now in more general use. (3) A person licensed to collect alms for hospitals.
Procurator: (1) A lawyer or an advocate. (2) A financial agent in an imperial province under the Roman emperors.
Procurator Fiscal: A Scottish public prosecutor.
Procureur: In France, the public prosecutor-in-chief.
Professor: Someone who publicly practises or teaches any branch of knowledge. Often a public and authorised teacher in a university.
Professore: An Italian Professor.
Progenitor: A parent: the founder of a family, or an ancestor.
Prognosticator: A predictor of future events, especially the weather.
Proletaneous: Having many offspring.
Prolocutor: Usually the chairman of a convocation, or meeting of clergy, but could just refer to a spokesman.
Property Man : Someone who looks after the stage properties in a theatre. (Also a property master or property mistress)
Proprætor: A magistrate of ancient Rome, who, after acting as prætor in Rome, was appointed to the government of a province. (Also a propretor).
Proprietario: An Italian landowner.
Proproctor: A substitute or assistant proctor.
Prorector: A substitute or assistant rector.
Prosateur: A French prose writer.
Proscriber: A person who would publish the names of persons to be punished-sometimes to death.
Proselyte: Someone who has come over from one religion or opinion to another. A convert. Can often be from heathen to Judism.
Proser: A writer of prose. (Also a prose writer or proseman)
Protagonist: A leading character, especially in a play.
Prothonotary: A principal clerk of court.
Protocolist: A registrar or a clerk.
Proviseur: A French headmaster.
Provost: (1) In Scotland, the head of a municipal corporation or burgh. A Lord Provost would be the chief magistrate. (2) The head of a chapter of a cathedral. (3) Head of a college. (4) A constable.
Provost marshal: A military officer with special powers for enforcing discipline and securing prisoners until such times that they can be brought to trial.
Prunella: A parson. A parson's gown was often made out of prunella,-Circa 1800.
Psalmodist: A singer of psalms.
Psaltress: A female player of the psaltery. (A stringed instrument used by the Jews).
Psilanthropist: Someone who considers Christ to be a mere man.
Psychīater: Someone who treats diseases of the mind.
Psychīatrist: Someone who treats diseases of the mind.
Psychic: A so called spiritualistic medium.
Pteridologist: Someone who studies ferns.
Pterographer: Someone who studies feathers.
Pterology: Someone who studies insects' wings.
Ptolemaist: Someone who believes in the Ptolemaic system of astronomy in which Ptolemy, the astronomer, explained the structure of the heavens and the motions of the heavenly bodies.
Publican: The keeper of a public house.
Publicist: Someone who writes on or is skilled in public law.
Public prosecutor: A person whose duty it is to conduct prosecutions which are in the public interest.
Pudding Sleeves: A parson. (Slang, circa 1800)
Puddler: A worker who turns pig iron into wrought iron by operating a puddling or ball furnace.
Puff(er): Someone who has been employed by the owner of goods at an auction to make bids in an attempt to increase the price.
Pugil: A Boxer. (Latin)
Pugilist: A boxer.
Pugaliste: A boxer.
Pugilliste: A boxer.
Pulpiteer: Someone who speaks from a pulpit: a preacher. (Also a Pulpiter)
Pump boy: This probably refers to a young boy employed to pump water out of a mine.
Pumpman: A member of the engineering department on a merchant ship, found virtually exclusively on a tanker, and specifically an oil tanker, who would look after the transfer of liquids.
Punder: The manorial officer in charge of the pinfold. (An enclosure where stray animals were kept)
Purgatore: Someone who would prepare and clean wool prior to spinning.
Purse Bearer: This is a ceremonial position within the British Royal Household which dates back to the 13th century. Today the purse, or burse, is used by the Lord Chancellor to convey the signed copy of the Queen's Speech printed on vellum, from the Queen's Robing Room to the steps of the Throne in the Chamber of the House of Lords at every State Opening of Parliament. It’s also solemnly carried before the Lord Chancellor in procession on State occasions. Historically, the use of a special purse was to hold the Great Seal of the Realm, the Lord Chancellor's symbol of Office. Also known as Pursebearer.
Purser: The officer, working under the Captain who was responsible for money transactions and stores on board a ship. In the 17th century a purser would be responsible to the ship owners for cargo and freight.
Pursuivant: (1) One of four inferior officers in the English College of Arms. (2) A state messenger. (3) An attendant or follower.
Purveyor: Someone who purchased provisions for the Crown.
Puss gentleman: A dandy. (Slang).
Putter: A mine worker who was employed to bring the putts (carts) of coal from the coalface to the bottom of the shaft for removal. This task would sometimes be undertaken by a young boy.
Pyramidist: Someone versed in the history of the Pyramids.
Pyretologist: Someone involved in the study of fevers.
Pyroballogist: Someone involved in the study of artillery fire.
Pyrographer: This involves decorating wood or other materials such as leather with burn marks to make a picture or a decorative pattern. It's also known as pokerwork or wood burning. Typically a hot poker or metal instrument would be used, and a large range of tones and shades can be achieved. Varying the type of tip used, the temperature, or the way the iron is applied to the material will create different effects. After the design is burned in, wooden objects are often coloured. Light-coloured hardwood such as sycamore, birch, or beech are most commonly used as their fine grain isn't obtrusive. Pine or oak can also be used. Pyrography is also popular among gourd crafters and artists, where designs are burned onto the exterior of a dried hard-shell gourd to good effect. During the Victorian era the invention of pyrography machines sparked a widespread interest in the craft, and it was at this time that the term "pyrography" was coined, although the art had previously been practiced by a number of cultures including the Egyptians and some African tribes.
Pyrolater: A fire worshiper.
Pyrologist: Someone involved in the science of heat. Pyronomics is the science of heat.
Pyrotechnist: A maker of fireworks.
Pyrrhicist: Someone who dances the pyrrhic. (A type of war dance)