Click here for A-C.
Click here for D-F.
Click here for G-I.
Click here for J-L.
Click here for M-P.
Click here for T-Z.
Click here for D-F.
Click here for G-I.
Click here for J-L.
Click here for M-P.
Click here for T-Z.
Quack Salver: A seller of often dubious, salve. The quack salvers sold their wares in the market place, often shouting in a loud voice. In the middle ages the word quack meant shouting.
Quack: A doctor, sometimes indicating a low professional skill. A fraudulent or ignorant pretender to medical skills. A mountebank.
Quadragenarian: Someone 40 years old.
Quaiffmaker: A cap maker.
Quaker: A religious sect. Quakers are members of a group with Christian roots that began in England in the 1650's. The formal title of the movement is the Society of Friends or the Religious Society of Friends. Their founder, George Fox, was trying to take belief and believers back to the original and pure form of Christianity. George Fox was born in July 1624 in Leicestershire, and died on 13 January 1691, by which time his movement had over 50,000 followers. He travelled throughout Britain as a dissenting preacher, for which he was often persecuted by the authorities who disapproved of his beliefs. His ministry expanded and he undertook tours of North America and the Low Countries, between which, he was imprisoned for over a year. He spent the final decade of his life working in London to organize the ever expanding Quaker movement. The name Quaker was first given them by Judge Bennet at Derby, because Fox bade him and those present "quake at the word of the Lord".
Quakeress: A female Quaker.
Qualificator: In the Roman Catholic Church, an officer who prepares ecclesiastical causes for trial.
Quarrel Picker: A glazier. (Named after the small squares in casement windows)
Quarrier: Someone who works in a quarry.
Quarterdecker: A Royal Navy slang term for an officer who is more conscious of his rank than his actual duties. Probably also a stickler for small points of etiquette on board ship.
Quarter Gunner: A Royal Navy term for a responsible seaman who would work under the auspice of a gunner and would be responsible for four guns.
Quarter-inch Admiral: A derogatory navy term for an officer cadet.
Quartermaster: (1) In the army, someone who keeps the troops supplied with provisions. (2) In the Royal Navy, a non commissioned or petty officer responsible for a ship's navigation and who would ensure the helmsman carried out his duties with diligence. (3) In the Merchant Navy a leading rating who would steer the ship and would keep gangway watch.
Quartermaster general: In the British army, a staff-officer of high rank, usually a major-general or colonel, who deals with all questions of transport, marches, quarters, fuel, clothing, etc.
Quartermaster sergeant: A first-class petty officer in the navy who attends to the helm, signals, etc.
Quean: A strumpet or worthless woman.
Queen dowager: The widow of a deceased king.
Queen regnant: A Queen holding the crown in her own right.
Queen's Bargemaster: This is a subordinate officer of the Royal Household of the Sovereign of the United Kingdom. Until the mid-19th century, the Royal family frequently used the River Thames for transportation, but the role is now ceremonial. The tradition of the Bargemaster dates back to 1215, and the signing of Magna Carta at Runnymede. Today the ceremonial duties include state occasions involving the Thames, and acting as footmen on royal carriages during State visits, royal weddings, and jubilees. the Bargemaster is also responsible for the Royal Watermen, chosen from the ranks of the Thames Watermen, who operate tugs and launches on the river. At the State Opening of Parliament The Queen’s Bargemaster and four Royal Watermen travel as boxmen on coaches, guarding the regalia when it’s conveyed from Buckingham Palace to Westminster and back again.
Queen's Flag Sergeant: This is a position within the British Royal Household. The post is filled by a serving non-commissioned officer from the Household Cavalry, who would hold the position for two years. He’s responsible for raising and lowering the Royal Standard from Buckingham Palace when the Sovereign is in residence and for the Union Flag when the Sovereign is not in residence. Part of the role involves dispatching Royal Standards to places the Monarch is visiting at home or abroad. He may also assist with courier or liveried duties, and is responsible to the Master of the Household’s department.
Queen's Piper: The position of Queen's Piper is one of the highest accolades available to a piper serving in the Armed Forces. The Piper is a member of the Royal Household whose principal duty is to play every weekday at 09.00 for about fifteen minutes under The Queen's window when she is in residence at Buckingham Palace, Windsor Castle, the Palace of Holyrood House or Balmoral Castle. He is also responsible for the co-ordination of the twelve Army pipers who play around the table after State Banquets. The history of the post dates back to the time of Queen Victoria. She apparently first heard bagpipe music in 1842, when she and Prince Albert visited the Highlands for the first time.
Queen's Remembrancer: (Or King’s Remembrancer) is an ancient judicial post in the legal system of England and Wales, and is the oldest judicial position in continual existence. The post was created in 1154 by King Henry II, and its main role was as a tax inspector and tax record keeper. Today the post is held by the Senior Master of the Queen's Bench Division of the High Court. Addition responsibilities include nomination of the High Sheriffs to each County of England and Wales (with the exceptions of Cornwall, Merseyside, Greater Manchester and Lancashire), who are later selected by the Duke of Lancaster (i.e. the Sovereign) via the Pricking ceremony. He would also present the Lord Mayor of the City of London to the Lord Chief Justice, Master of the Rolls and other High Court judges at the Royal Courts of Justice on Lord Mayor's Day, and present newly-appointed Sheriffs of the City of London with a Writ of Approbation from the Monarch, sealed with the Great Silver Seal of the Exchequer. This takes place at the same time as the Quit Rents.
Queen’s Swan Marker: At the completion of Swan Upping each year, The Queen's Swan Marker produces a report which provides data on the number of swans accounted for, including broods and cygnets. The Crown retains the right to ownership of all unmarked mute swans in open water on the Thames, but The Queen only exercises her ownership on certain stretches of the Thames and its surrounding tributaries. This ownership is shared with the Worshipful Company of Vintners and the Worshipful Company of Dyers, who were granted rights of ownership by the Crown in the fifteenth century. In the Swan Upping ceremony, The Queen's Swan Marker, the Royal Swan Uppers and the Swan Uppers of the Vintners' and Dyers' livery companies use six traditional Thames rowing skiffs in their five-day journey up-river. The Queen's Swan Uppers wear traditional scarlet uniforms and each boat flies appropriate flags and pennants. Apart from Swan Upping, The Queen's Swan Marker has other duties. He advises organisations throughout the country on swan welfare and incidents involving swans such as vandalism. He also monitors the health of local swan populations, and briefs fishing and boating organisations on how to work with existing wildlife and maintain existing natural habitat. Additionally he works closely with swan rescue organisations and carries out the rescue of sick and injured swans, and he co-ordinates the temporary removal of swans from stretches of the Thames used for summer rowing regattas. Swan Upping takes place in the third week of July each year. The process dates from the 12th century, during which time the Swans often ended up on the dining table.
Queer Bailer: Someone who tries to bail arrested people for profit.
Queer Bluffer: The master of a public house of ill repute.
Queer Wedge Maker: A buckle maker.
Questman: A sidesman or a churchwarden's assistant.
Questor: (1) In Roman times, a magistrate with charge of the public funds. Originally one who investigated cases of murder and executed sentence. (2) In the Middle Ages, an officer who announced indulgences. (3) A treasurer. (Also Quæstor).
Quidnunc: A politician.
Quill Driver: A clerk or scribe.
Quiller: An operator of a quilling machine in the textile industry.
Quilter: A person or machine for making quilting.
Quinquagenarian: Someone who is between 50 and 59 years old.
Quīrister: A chorister.
Quister: A cloth bleacher.
Quota Man: This would be a man required by law to provide service as part of a quota system that towns or counties were required to supply for the Royal Navy. (Circa 1800)
Rabbino: A Rabbi.
Rabbit Catcher: A midwife. (Circa 1800)
Racker: Someone who tortures.
Raconteur: Originally a story teller.
Raddleman: Someone who deals in ruddle, which is a red ochre.
Radmaker: A wheelwright.
Radoubeur: A French ship repairer.
Raffineur: A sugar refiner. (French)
Raftsman: The person who steers a raft.
Rag & Bone Man: Someone with a horse and cart who toured the streets buying or taking away unwanted items.
Rag Carrier: An Ensign.
Railway Policeman: An archaic term for railway signalman who would use flags to communicate to each other and to the driver of a train. (Early 19th century).
Rainbow (Knight of the): A footman.
Rajah: A native prince or king in Hindustan. (Also Raja).
Ramasseur: A collector. (French)
Ramper: A ruffian who frequents race-courses.
Rampsman: A highway robber. (Slang).
Ranger: (1) An officer who superintends a forest or park. (2) A body of mounted troops.
Rank Rider: A highwayman.
Rapetasseur: A cobbler. (French)
Rapparee: An Irish robber.
Rascallion: One of the lowest people-a low, mean wretch. A rascal.
Raskolnik: A dissenter from the orthodox or Greek Church.
Rating: A generic term for a seaman, but not an officer.
Ratoner: A rat catcher.
Rattling Cove: A coachman.
Rattling Mumper: A beggar.
Ravener: A plunderer.
Ravenmaster: Or to give the correct name-Yeoman Warder Ravenmaster-is one of the Yeomen Warders who have the responsibility to maintain the welfare of the ravens at the Tower of London. The ravens are fed raw meat each day which comes from Smithfield Market. It's believed Ravens have been at the Tower of London since at least the time of King Charles II, and legend has it that should the ravens ever leave the tower, the tower and the monarchy will crumble. In order to prevent the ravens from flying away, their feathers are trimmed, so that they cannot fly in a straight line for any great distance.
Reader: A reader in a church.
Reader Merchant: A pickpocket.
Reader of the Temple: The preacher of the Temple Church in London. The church always has two clergy, namely the "Master of the Temple" and the "Reader of the Temple" respectively.
Rear Admiral: A flag officer in the Royal Navy, being under an admiral, and between a commodore and a vice admiral.
Rebeccaite: One of a set of rioters in South Wales, in 1843-44, who scoured the country by night, the leaders disguised in women's clothes, and threw down the toll-bars on the public roads. They were subsequently called 'Rebecca and her daughters."
Rebroccator: A shoemaker. Although frequently less prestigious than a shoemaker.
Receiver: (1) An officer who receives taxes. (2) A person appointed by a court to hold and manage property which is under litigation, or receive the rents of land, etc. (3) Someone who receives stolen goods.
Receiver General: (1) A prostitute. (2) An officer who receives the public revenue.
Receiver of Wreck: This would be an officer appointed by the Board of Trade who would take charge of wrecks on the British coast, and where possible save life or salvage any goods. Historically, whales, dolphins, porpoises and sturgeon washed up on shore come under the auspice of the Receiver of Wreck. This ancient right goes back to the 14th century and King Edward II.
Recenseur: A French census enumerator.
Rechabite: A total abstainer from intoxicating drinks, so called after Jonadab, the son of Rechab, who abstained from drinking wine, in obedience to the injunction of their ancestor.
Recitationist: A public reciter.
Recorder: A judge of a city or borough court of quarter-sessions. One who records or registers, especially the rolls, etc.
Rector: (1) A clergyman who received up to one tenth of all crops grown in the parish. Sometimes he also received a tax placed on farm animals. (2) In the Church of England, a clergyman who has the charge and cure of a parish. An ecclesiastic in charge of a congregation. (3) A ruler.
Reddleman: A dealer in red clay.
Redemptionist: One of an order of monks devoted to the redemption of Christian captives from slavery.
Redemptorist: One of a congregation of Roman Catholic missionary priests, founded by Alfonso Liguori in 1732, whose object is the religious instruction of the people and the reform of public morality, by periodically visiting, preaching, and hearing confessions.
Red Sail Yard Docker: A buyer of stolen goods from royal yards and docks.
Redsmith: A coppersmith. The term redsmith derives from the colour of copper.
Reducer: Someone who reduces: a joint-piece for connecting pipes of varying diameter. A plumber.
Reeder: A thatcher.
Reefer: An obsolete Royal Navy term for the midshipman who would reef a sail.
Reeler: (1) A dancer of folk dances or reels. (2) A generic term for someone involved in reeling-for instance, someone in a textile mill who might put the yarns onto reels prior to weaving. (3) A Royal Navy term for the person who holds the reel. (A wooden framework in which log line is reeled. It has an axle on each side for holding)
Reel holder: One of the watch on a man-of-war who hauls in the line when the log is heaved to ascertain the ship's speed.
Reeve: A generic term for a local official who represented the tenants on a manor in negotiations with the lord of the manor.
Referendary: Someone to whose decision a cause is referred, a referee: formerly a public official whose duty was to procure, execute, and despatch diplomas and charters, or who served as the medium of communication with a sovereign.
Regarder: An official responsible for monitoring woodlands and forest areas and reporting back to the court of regard.
Registrar: (1) This is a generic term for someone who keeps or maintains records. (2) In shipping terms, Chief Officers of Customs are normally registrar's of shipping.
Regleur: A clock regulator. (French)
Regrattier. (1) A huckster. (2) A vegetable and cheese dealer.
Relict: A woman surviving her husband, a widow.
Remembrancer: An officer of exchequer. A recorder.
Removing Wardrobe: This is an obsolete sub-division of the British Royal Household, who would have been appointed by the Lord Chamberlain’s Office. The holder was responsible for looking after the furnishings and fittings which would have been moved between Royal Palaces. The office was headed by the Yeoman of the Removing Wardrobe. The position has been obsolete since 1782.
Renardier: A fox catcher.
Repository Keeper: (1) A jailer. (2) A livery stables worker.
Rescribendary: A papal official who determines what documents are to be copied and registered etc.
Resident Governor of the Tower of London: This person has the responsibility of the day to running of the Tower of London, with the role being combined in 1967 with the Keeper of the Jewel House. The new title being Resident Governor of the Tower of London and Keeper of the Jewel House. The Jewel House and control room occupy the whole ground floor of the Waterloo Barracks. The security of the Tower of London as a whole is entrusted to the Tower Guard, which is provided by the whichever unit is charged with providing the Queen's Guard at Buckingham Palace at the time. The Guard has been based in Waterloo Barracks since 1845. The Yeomen Warders of the Tower of London also provide security, though their day-time role is more concerned with the management of the large number of visitors to the Tower of London. Unlike the soldiers of the Tower Guard, who rotate, the Yeomen Warders are permanent, and live in the Tower of London.
Respondent: In a law-suit, the person who refutes objections.
Restaurateur: The keeper of a restaurant.
Restio: A Ropemaker. (Latin)
Restorationist: One who holds the belief that after a purgation, all wicked men and angels will be restored to the favour of God.
Resurrection Man: Someone employed by medical students in anatomy to steal dead bodies out of churchyards.
Retaio: A net maker.
Retiary: A gladiator who fought with a net. (Also retiarius).
Returning officer: (1) The officer who makes returns of writs etc. (2) The presiding officer at an election.
Revel master: The director of Christmas festivities.
Revenue officer: An official of the customs or excise.
Reverser: In Scotland, a mortgager of land.
Revīsing barrister: A barrister appointed annually by English judges to revise the list of voters for members of parliament. The revision generally taking place between August and October of each year.
Revīvalist: An itinerant preacher.
Rhymer: An inferior poet: a minstrel.
Rhymist: An inferior poet: a minstrel.
Rhymester: A would-be poet. Similar to poetaster or versifier.
Ribbonman: A member of a Ribbon society. The Ribbopn Society was founded in the early part of the 19th century in Ireland in antagonism to the Orangemen. It later became an organization of tenant farmers joined together to prevent eviction by landlords. It takes its name from the green ribbon worn by members as a badge.
Ribibe: An old woman.
Ricamatore: An Embroiderer. (Italian)
Rice pounder: A rice mill worker.
Ridder: A mining term for someone who rakes coal.
Riddle maker: A maker of sieves.
Ridge Man: A goldsmith.
Rigattiere-e-linaiuolo: A dealer in linen. (Italian)
Rigger: Someone who would have rigged or made the sails on a ship.
Rimist: An inferior poet: a minstrel.
Ring carrier: A go-between.
Ringleader: (1) The leader of a riotous body. (2) One who opens a ball.
Riparian proprietor: An owner who has property in the soil to the centre of a stream.
Ripienist: In music, a supplementary instrumentalist.
Ripper: A seller of fish. (Slang)
Rippon Maker: A spur maker.
Risaldar: A native commander of a troop of cavalry in the British Indian army. The troop is a Risala.
Rishi: A sage or poet. The writer of a Vedic hymn.
Risley: A Risley performer is an acrobat who lies on his back and carries the burden on his feet.
Ritagliatore: A wool retailer. (Italian)
Ritter: A knight.
Ritt master: A captain of cavalry.
Riverman: (1) Someone who worked on a boat on the river. (2) Someone who makes his livelihood by dragging the river for sunken goods.
Roadman: Someone who builds or repairs roads.
Roadster: A coach driver.
Robin: A lawyer. (French)
Robinetier: A brass smith.
Rock Getter: A salt miner. Possibly in the Cheshire area.
Rockman: A skilled workman who excavates rock which is then split into slates.
Rodman: The person who holds the surveying rod for a surveyor.
Rodster: An angler.
Roll Turner: A textile industry worker.
Rom: A gipsy.
Romancier: A novelist. (French)
Romanist: A Roman Catholic.
Ronchonnot: An old retired officer. (France)
Roost Layer: A poultry thief.
Roper: (1) A craftsman who makes ropes. (2) A decoy who lures people into a gambling den.
Rope spinner: A person who spins ropes by using a revolving wheel.
Rope Stretcher: Originally a surveyor who made measurements by use of a knotted cord which was stretched taut to allow measurements to be made.
Rotan Driver: A driver of a wheeled carriage.
Roturier: Someone who owned land, but paid a rent to a seigneur.
Rouge Croix Pursuivant: This is a junior officer of arms of the College of Arms. The office is thought to have been named after the St George's Cross which has been a symbol of England since the time of the Crusades. It’s believed that the office is currently vacant (as of June 2013).
Rouge Dragon Pursuivant: This is a junior officer of arms of the College of Arms, named after the red dragon of Wales. The office of Rouge Dragon Pursuivant no longer carries any influence. As close confidants of the Sovereign in the Middle Ages, Officers of Arms (or King's Heralds, as they were then known) used to have considerable power. But it has diminished with the Age of Chivalry, and their last real royal function, apart from ceremonial state occasions, was to keep the scoring at joust tournaments in the 16th century.
Rouleur: A journeyman.
Routier: (1) A French brigand of the 12th century. (2) Any brigand or armed robber.
Rover: (1) A pirate or rogue. (2) This possibly also has some archery connotation. Literally "to wander, to shoot an arrow randomly"
Royal Army Medical Corps (R.A.M.C.): Before 1854 each unit recruited their own medical staff to a greater or lesser degree. The general lack of decent medical facilities in the Crimean War resulted in the formation of the Medical Staff Corps, which became the all male Army Hospital Corps in 1857, before becoming the R.A.M.C. in 1898.
Royal Army Service Corps (R.A.S.C.): Formed during the Crimean war as the Land Transport Corps, merging with the Military Train in 1856, before becoming the Army Service Corps in 1870. Its function ever since has been to keep supplies getting through to the troops throughout the world.
Royal Artillery (R.A.): Two companies were formed by King George I in 1716. Each company had 100 men, and was raised at Woolwich. This later increased to four companies in 1722. Until 1793 when the Royal Horse Artillery was formed the Royal Artillery had to rely on civilian waggoners for transport of their equipment. Artillery was believed to have been used at the Battle of Crécy in 1346, although the term Royal Artillery wasn't adopted until 1720. For modern day Royal Artillery see http://www.army.mod.uk/artillery/artillery.aspx
Royal Librarian: This is a position within the British Royal Household and coming under the banner of the Royal Collection department. It dates back to 1836. The holder is largely responsible for the care and maintenance of the royal collection of books and manuscripts owned by the Sovereign in an official capacity, as distinct from those owned privately and displayed at Sandringham, Balmoral Castle and elsewhere. The Librarian now has charge of the Royal Library, at Windsor as well as the Print Room. The latter contains the royal collections of drawings, old master prints and engravings which is one of the finest in the world. The Librarian also organizes exhibitions and loans, recommends purchases, and advises on publications on the royal library, print room, and on the history of Windsor Castle.
Royal Observer Corps (R.O.C.): A civil defence body formed mainly of voluntary workers whose duty was to plot and watch for enemy aircraft. This function was largely during WWII, and the "cold war" which followed it. Traditionally members would wear an R.A.F. style uniform, and latterly came under the command of R.A.F. Strike Command. The body was formed in October 1925 before being stood down in December 1995. The "Royal" part was added in April 1941 by King George VI.
Royal Wagon Train (R.W.T.): Formed in 1794 as the Corps of Wagoners to boost the deficiencies in the Army's transport requirements. It didn't last long and was disbanded by 1799 when it resurfaced as the Royal Wagon Train (R.W.T.) It mainly operated in the Peninsular and Waterloo military campaigns before being finally disbanded in 1833 (Source: The companion to British History, Charles Arnold-Baker, Page 1281, 2007 edition)
Royal Watermen: Until the middle of the nineteenth century, the Sovereign regularly travelled on the river Thames, either on State occasions or between the royal palaces of Windsor, Westminster, Hampton Court, Greenwich and the Tower of London. The men who rowed the royal barges were known as Royal Watermen. Although there are no royal State barges afloat now, the Queen still retains twenty four Royal Watermen under The Queen’s Bargemaster, one of the most ancient appointments in the Royal Household. The duties of the Royal Watermen are now purely ceremonial. They play a part in any state occasion on the Thames. They are also in attendance when The Queen’s guests travel on the river to Hampton Court or Greenwich. Their onshore duties include acting as footmen on royal carriages during State visits, royal weddings and jubilees. At the coronation they walk in the procession behind The Queen’s Bargemaster. At the State Opening of Parliament, The Queen’s Bargemaster and four Royal Watermen travel as boxmen on coaches, guarding the regalia when it is conveyed from Buckingham Palace to Westminster and back.
Rubanier: A maker or seller of ribbon.
Ruddleman: Someone who deals in ruddle, which is a red ochre.
Rum Bob: An inexperienced apprentice. (Slang)
Rum Diver: A pickpocket.
Rummager: (1) Originally someone who stowed cargo on a ship. (2) Someone who would search a ship for contraband goods.
Rumourer: A reporter, a spreader of news.
Rum Padder: A mounted and armed highwayman.
Runman: A deserter from a ship-of-war.
Runner: (1) A mining term for someone who pushes the coal wagons. (2) A navy term for someone who takes and delivers a message. (3) A smuggler.
Running Stationer: A hawker of newspapers, or sometimes paper and ink.
Rusher: A housebreaker.
Sabbatarian: A very strict observer of the Sabbath.
Sabotier: A maker or a wearer of wooden clogs.
Sabot Maker: The maker of cheap shoes, often made out of wood, which might have been worn by the peasants.
Sabreur: A cavalry soldier. (French)
Sabrina work: A type of embroidery.
Saccaio: A bag maker. (Italian)
Sacerdotalist: A supporter of sacerdotalism. (A devotion to priestly interests).
Sacerdote: A Priest. (Italian)
Sacrificer: A priest.
Sacristan(e): An officer who is charged with the care of the contents of a church. Not unlike a sexton.
Saddle maker: (1) Someone who made saddles. (2) In the pottery industry this is the person who would make the leather strips which would be used on a sagger (fireclay containers) to rest the pottery whilst it's being fired.
Saddler: A maker and repairer of saddles.
Saffo: An obsolete term for a bailiff.
Sagaman: A narrator of sagas.
Sagamore: A chief in some tribes of native American Indians.
Sage: A man of gravity and wisdom.
Saggar Maker: A maker of ceramic, boxlike containers which can be used to enclose or protect ware in a kiln.
Saggar Maker's Bottom Knocker: Saggars are ceramic, boxlike containers which can be used to enclose or protect ware in a kiln. A Bottom Knocker would generally be a young apprentice.
Sahib: A term of respect given in India to persons of rank and in general to Europeans.
Sailing Master: An archaic term for a Royal Navy officer responsible to the captain for the navigation of a ship.
Sailmaker: A naval term for the person who carried out canvas work or made and repaired ship's sails.
Salesman's Dog: A barker.
Saleur: A salter or curer.
Saltimbanco: A quack. A mountebank.
Sallee man: A Moorish pirate.
Sallie: A hired mourner at a funeral.
Salt: A slang term for a seaman.
Saltarix: A Dancer. (Latin)
Salt Beef Squire: A Royal Navy nickname for an officer promoted from the lower deck.
Salt Boiler: This is someone who would boil seawater to extract the salt.
Salter: (1) Someone who manufacturers or deals in salt. (2) Someone who treats fish or meat with salt to preserve them.
Salt Horse: Royal Navy slang for an officer who has specialised in seamanship.
Salt Merchant: Someone who makes or deals in salt. The areas of Northwich, Nantwich, and Middlewitch in Cheshire, and Droitwich in Worcestershire were all salt producing towns. The "wich" in the names indicates a presence of salt.
Saltpetreman: Someone who dug for saltpetre (a compound of gunpowder) or made it.
Salver: A quacksalver or a pretender.
Salvor: A person who saves a cargo from a wreck or from a fire.
Samnite: A Roman gladiator armed with shield.
Sandalier: Someone who made sandals.
Sand bagger: A robber who used a sand-bag to stun his victims.
Sandwich man: A man (usually) who walks the streets between two boards advertising goods for sale.
Sank: A maker of soldier's clothing.
Sankey: A maker of soldier's clothing.
Sans-emploi: An unemployed person. (French)
Sans-filiste: A wireless operator. (French)
Sapeur: A sapper. (French)
Sapper: A combatant soldier who would carry out engineering duties such as bridge building, mine clearance, demolition, and general construction work. Also colloquially known as a miner in some areas.
Sarcologist: A branch of anatomy specialising in soft body parts.
Sardinier: (1) A sardine fisherman. (2) A sardine packer.
Sarsen: A local name for the old inhabitants who worked the tin-mines in Cornwall.
Sartor: A tailor.
Satellitium: An attendant.
Satineur: A glazer. (French)
Saucier: Someone who made sauce. (French)
Saunier: (1) A salt maker. (2) A salt seller.
Sauveteur: A lifeboat man. (French)
Savant: (1) A scholar. (2) A scientist.
Savetier: A shoemaker. Although frequently less prestigious than a shoemaker.
Savonnier: A soap maker or boiler.
Savoyard: A travelling magic lantern showman.
Sawbones: A physician or surgeon. (Slang)
Sawyer: Someone who saws wood.
Scagliola(er): Someone who made imitation marble out of a mixture of gypsum and glue coloured with marble or granite dust.
Scalder: A person who would clean a ship by using steam.
Scald rag: An archaic nickname for a dyer.
Scaler: A scaler of fish.
Scaleraker: A street cleaner.
Scamp: A highwayman.
Scandal bearer: A propagator of malicious gossip.
Scandal monger: One who deals in defamatory reports.
Scape gallows: A villain who deserves hanging.
Scappler: A worker who dug up the rough stone before it was finished by a stone mason.
Scaramouch: A buffoon.
Scaricatore: An Italian stevedore.
Scarpellatore: A sculptor. (Italian)
Scatterling: A vagabond.
Scaveler: Someone who would keep the waterways clear.
Scavenger: (1) A street cleaner. Known as a scaffie in Scotland. (2) Someone who collects things discarded by others.
Scawager: A tax collector.
Scene man: A person who manages the scenery in a theatre. (Also a scene shifter).
Scene painter: A painter who paints the scenery at a theatre.
Schepen: A Dutch magistrate or Alderman.
Schermidore: A fencer. (sword) (Italian)
Schiavo: A slave. (Italian)
Schilder: A Dutch painter.
Schism Monger: A dissenting teacher.
Scholarch: The head of a school of philosophy.
Schriver: A Dutch writer.
Sciolist: Someone who knows anything superficially: a pretender to science.
Scodellaio: An Italian bowl maker.
Scourer: (1) A worker in the tinplate industry. (2) In the pottery industry this would involve scouring or brushing down pottery after it had been fired but prior to it being glazed, to remove any loose pieces. The scourer would usually be a young girl and there were serious health side effects caused by breathing in the dust which often led to silicosis.
Scout: (1) A military spy or intelligence gatherer, who would go out in advance of the main party and report back. (2) A college servant at Oxford, (the same as a gyp in Cambridge or a skip in Dublin).
Scouter: A workman who would use drills and wedges to cut off large flakes of stone.
Scout master: An army officer who is in charge of army scouts.
Scraper: A fiddler. (As in a musician)
Screener: A mining occupation where the coal is separated from other material.
Screever: (1) A person who writes begging letters. (2) Someone who would draw with coloured chalks on the pavement in return for money from people passing by.
Scribbler: An untalented, or disreputable writer.
Scribe: A public clerk or secretary, especially in ancient times.
Scrimer: A fencing master.
Scrimshander: Someone who did wood or bone carving-often whalebone, and often done by sailors on long voyages.
Scrimshaw(er): Someone who did wood or bone carving-often in whalebone, and often done by sailors on long voyages.
Script holder: Someone whose title to stock is in a written certificate.
Scripturist: Someone with a good understanding of the scriptures.
Scrivener: Someone who specialised in drawing up bonds and legal documents etc. There is still a Scrivener's Livery Company.
Scrutateur: An investigator. (French)
Scrutator: Someone tasked with ensuring an election runs smoothly and without any malpractice.
Scrutineer: Someone tasked with ensuring an election runs smoothly and without any malpractice.
Scull Thatcher: A wig maker.
Scull: A head of a house or a master of a college.
Sculler: Someone who worked a long oar used at the stern of a boat and moved from side to side to propel the boat forward.
Scullery Maid: The lowest "ranked" and often the youngest female servant.
Scullion: A servant who does the menial tasks in a kitchen.
Scultore: An Italian sculptor.
Scutcher: (1) One who dresses hedges. (2) Someone who would separate the valuable fibres of flax, or a similar item, from the woody parts by beating it.
Scytheman: The user of a kind of sickle to cut down weeds, grass or crops.
Sea Captain: The master of a ship, and a certified officer. This would normally be a merchant ship.
Sea Crab: A sailor. (Slang)
Sea Fencible: A naval militia who provided close in-shore defence to protect England from invasion-particularly by Napoleon during the period 1798-1810.
Sealer: (1) Someone who hunts for seals. (2) An inspector of stamps.
Seamster: Similar to a seamstress. Someone who sews.
Seamstress: (1) A general term for a female who carried out simple needlework. This might include repairs and sewing up seams. (2) An old euphemism for a prostitute. This is sometimes found in census returns, however it should be noted that the vast majority of seamstresses were involved in needlework rather than engaged in other nefarious activities.
Sea Reeve: An archaic term for someone who would keep watch of the seaward boarders on an estate of the lord of the manor. He would also take charge of any wrecks and try to prevent smuggling within the confines of the estate.
Sea Rover: A pirate or privateer.
Seasoner: (1) A beach comber. (2) Someone who is hired for the season. This could be in farming or even aboard a ship.
Sebundee: A native soldier or local militiaman in India. (Also a Sebundy)
Sebundy: A native soldier or local militiaman in India. (Also a Sebundee)
Second lieutenant: The rank given to officers on first joining the army, corresponding to the former Cornet and Ensign.
Secouriste: Someone qualified in first aid. (French)
Segatore: A sawyer. (Italian)
Segnalatore: A signalman. (Italian)
Seigneur: A Lord or nobleman.
Seismologist: An expert in the geophysical science of earthquakes and the mechanical properties of the earth.
Selaio: A saddler. (Italian)
Selenographer: A student of selenography. (Concerning the delineation of the moon)
Semasiologist: Someone who studies the meaning of words.
Seneschal: Someone who was in charge of the servants and looked after the household.
Searcher: A customs officer who would search a ship for contraband.
Second Hand: The person below the skipper on a fishing vessel.
Second poor: A pauper not receiving relief from the parish.
Seedsman: (1) Someone dealing in seeds. (2) An agricultural labourer who would sow the seeds.
Selectman: A vestryman.
Self Acter Minder: Someone in the textile industry who looked after the self-acting "mule" of a spinning machine.
Sellier: A saddler.
Semainier: (1) An officer. (2) A monk. (3) An actor.
Sempster: A seamstress.
Seneschal: A steward in a household in charge of domestic arrangements and the administration of servants.
Seniors of the parish: Select vestrymen.
Sensale: A broker or a middleman.
Sentinel: A soldier or guard whose job is to stand and keep watch. A sentry.
Sentinella: An Italian sentry.
Sentry: A soldier or guard whose job is to stand and keep watch.
Sepoy: A native Hindu or Mohammedan soldier in the British army in India.
Septimanarian: A monk who is given a week of duties to perform.
Septuagenarian: Someone 70 years old.
Serdo: A Tanner. (Latin)
Serdonis: A Tanner. (Latin)
Sergeant: (1) A servant to a knight in medieval times. (2) A military rank above a corporal and below a staff sergeant. (3) In England, a policeman between a constable and an inspector.
Sergeant at arms: (1) An officer appointed to keep order within an organization, such as a legislative, judicial, or social body. (2) Formerly an officer who served a monarch or a noble, who would often be armed.
Serger: A serge weaver.
Sergier: A serge weaver.
Serjeant at law: In England, formerly the highest degree of barrister, once with exclusive audience in the Court of Common Pleas. Their correct dress was a viole coloured robe with a scarlet hood, and a black coif, represented in modern times by a patch of silk at the top of the wig.
Sermoner: A preacher.
Sermonīser: Someone who preaches or writes sermons.
Serrurier: A locksmith.
Servant: Someone who is privately employed to perform domestic services either to an individual or within a house. If this refers to someone in a rural environment it may well indicate a farm servant.
Servant out of livery: A servant of a higher grade, as a majordomo or butler.
Servitor: An assistant to a lawyer or school teacher.
Servitore: A servant. (Italian)
Session clerk: In Scotland, the official who records the transactions of a kirk session.
Setaiolo: An Italian silk merchant or weaver.
Setter: (1) A Bailiffs assistant. (Like a dog, follows and points the game for his master) (2) A person who sets-as in words to music.
Sevaiolo: An Italian tallow (for candles) dealer.
Sewster: A seamstress.
Sexagenarian: A person 60 years old.
Sexton: A church official who looks after the maintenance of the church as well as the graveyard. In olden days this might include grave digging as well.
Shacker: Someone who had the right of grazing animals on common land after the crop had been harvested.
Shackler: Someone in a mine who joins the coal wagons' together.
Shaftman: A mineworker who drills the shaft.
Shaker: One of a small communistic religious sect founded in Manchester about the middle of the 18th century, so nicknamed from a peculiar dance forming part of their religious service.
Sharecropper: A tenant farmer who gives a share of the crops raised to the landlord in place of rent.
Shark: A custom house officer.
Shearer: Someone who shears cloth or sheep.
Shearman: (1) Someone whose occupation is to shear cloth. (2) A barber.
Sheep Dresser: This would be someone whose job it was to "dress" the skin of a sheep after the fleese had been removed. This would involve scraping off the fat to prepare the skin either for a strong leather called skiver which was often used for bookbinding, or for vellum.
Sheep master: The master or owner of sheep.
Sheepskin Fiddler: A drummer.
Sheerman: A scissor maker.
Sheller: Someone who shells or husks.
Shepherd: (1) Someone who herds, tends, or guards sheep. (2) A member of the clergy.
Shepherd's Page: A young boy who would be learning the trade working with a more experienced shepherd.
Sherif: (1) A descendant of Mohammed through his daughter Fatima. (2) The chief magistrate at Mecca. (3) A prince or a ruler.
Sheriff: The chief officer of the crown in every county or shire. His duties being chiefly ministerial rather than judicial.
Sheriff's Journeyman: A hangman.
Shiah: A member of that Mohammedan sect which maintains that Ali, first cousin of Mohammed and husband of his daughter Fatima, was the first legitimate successor of the Prophet, rejecting the three califs of their opponents the Sunnis, as usurpers.
Shifter: A mining term for the person who kept the underground passageways clear.
Shingler: An iron works worker.
Shipbreaker: Someone who breaks up old and unserviceable ships for scrap.
Shipbroker: (1) Someone who buys and sells ships. (2) Someone who acts as an intermediary between a shipper and the ship owner. (3) Someone who acts as a ship's agent.
Shipbuilder: This is a generic term for someone involved in the building of ships.
Ship Chandler: Tradesmen who deal in the commodities required when fitting out a ship. This would include ropes, canvas etc.
Shipper: (1) Someone who puts cargo into a ship for onward transportation. (2) An archaic term for a seaman.
Shipping Clerk: Someone employed by a company who would send, record and receive goods.
Shipping the Swab: An archaic Royal Navy slang term for someone who has gained promotion to the rank of lieutenant.
Shipowner: Someone who owns at least the minimum legal requirement of 1/64th share in a ship. He could own the whole ship, or be one of up to 64 different owners.
Ship's Boy: A young man or boy employed to attend the needs of passengers or officers aboard a ship.
Ship's Carpenter: Someone who builds or repairs ships.
Ship's Husband: (1) A navy slang term for a Boatswain. (2) An archaic term for the person on a merchant ship who would purchase stores.
Shipwright: Someone who builds or repairs wooden ships. Typically in a Dockyard the hierarchy would be-Working shipwright, Quarterman of shipwrights, Leading man of shipwrights, Inspector of Shipwrights, Foreman of the Yard, Senior foreman of the yard, Assistant Master Shipwright, Master Shipwright, and Surveyor of the Navy. The Guildhall Library in the City of London keep some Shipwright records, but they are incomplete. There is still a Worshipful Company of Shipwrights.
Shoeboy: A boy who cleans shoes.
Shoeshiner: An occupation in which a person polishes shoes with shoe polish.
Shoesmith: Someone who makes or repairs metal or steel shoes. (For horses as an example) A cobbler.
Shoresman: (1) A sole or part owner of a vessel. (2) A fisherman along the shore.
Shorthander: A stenographer.
Shoulder Clapper: A bailiff.
Shrager: Someone who trims or cuts down trees.
Shrieval: A judge in any of the sheriff courts.
Shrieve: A sheriff.
Shunter: A railway employee who would move the rolling stock around a railway yard. Normally these would be goods trains.
Shuttlemaker: A maker of shuttles that would be used in the textile industry to weave cloth.
Sicaire: A hired assassin. (French)
Sickleman: An agricultural labourer who would use a sickle or scythe in the fields to cut down plants or weeds.
Side Boy: A young boy or ordinary seaman in the Royal Navy whose duties, in conjunction with the quartermaster, were to keep the gangway clear and to carry messages. Whilst at sea he would be the bridge messenger.
Side Party: A navy term for ratings who are tasked to keep the paintwork in order.
Siderographist: The art of steel engraving.
Sidesman: An assistant to a church warden. Also known as a questman or synodsmen.
Signalman: (1) A railway worker who controls the signals and flow of trains. (2) A military term for the person who would send and receive signals.
Silk Mercer: A dealer in silk.
Silladar: A member of a troop of irregular cavalry.
Sillographer: A writer of satires.
Silver Stick: This is a position created in 1678 within the British Royal Household, and is the bodyguard (along with Gold Stick) to the Sovereign on ceremonial occasions. Today, the role is held by the Commander Household Cavalry who holds the rank of Colonel. Silver Stick-in-Waiting is the deputy assistant to Gold Stick-in-Waiting, but there are occasions when Silver Stick only is summoned for duty—for example, on the arrival of a Head of State on a State Visit, or when two or more escorts of the Household Cavalry are needed at the same time. Scotland has separate Gold and Silver Sticks.
Silvologist: A person who studies woods and forest ecology.
Simeonite: A follower of the Cambridge evangelical preacher Charles Simeon (1759-1836), whose influence is perpetuated by the Simeon Trust, established for purchasing advowsons.
Simpler: Someone who grows or harvests simples. (Medicinal herbs)
Sindaco: An Italian Mayor.
Sircar: A Hindu clerk. (Also sirkar, and circar).
Skepper: A beehive maker.
Skiaiter: A roof slater.
Skinker: Someone who serves drink. A tapster or bartender.
Skinner: Someone who prepares or sells animal skins. There is still a Worshipful Company of Skinner's.
Skip Jack: A horse dealer's apprentice or boy.
Skip Kennel: A footman.
Skipper: The master of a ship. Often a small fishing boat or trading vessel.
Slager: A Dutch butcher.
Slapper: A general term for someone using a metalworking hand tool. Often in the metalwork or pottery industries.
Slater: Someone employed to lay slate surfaces, as on roofs.
Slaughterman: Someone who would slaughter or butcher animals.
Slaver: Someone involved in the trafficking of slaves.
Slaymaker: A manufacturer of slays that would be used in the weaving industry. Also Slaywright.
Slaywright: A manufacturer of slays that would be used in the weaving industry. Also Slaymaker.
Slop Seller: (1) A dealer of apparel and bedding used by seamen. (2) A dealer in cheap ready made clothes.
Slubber degullion: An obsolete term for a wretch.
Sluggard waker: A dog whipper. (A minor church official who kept stray dogs out of church yards.)
Smacking Cove: A coachman.
Smallholder: This is someone who either owns or rents a small plot of land.
Smaltista: An Italian enameller.
Smasher: A mining term for the person who smashed up unwanted rock.
Smear: A plasterer.
Smelter: (1) Someone involved in the smelting industry. (2) A catcher of smelt. (A type of fish not dissimilar looking to a salmon-but smaller.)
Smelterman: Someone involved in the smelting industry.
Smid: A Dutch blacksmith.
Smigator: A Soapmaker. (Latin)
Smith: One who forges with the hammer. A generic term for a worker in metals.
Smithy: A blacksmith.
Smoker: A tobacconist.
Smout: A slang term for a printer who gets occasional work at various locations.
Smug: A blacksmith. (Slang)
Smuggler: A person or vessel involved in smuggling.
Snaffler: A highwayman or horse thief.
Snitcher: A slang term for an informer.
Snob: (1) A shoemaker. (Slang) (2) A workman who works for lower wages than his fellows.
Snobscat: A Shoe Repairer. (Slang)
Snotty: A Royal Navy slang term for a midshipman.
Snub Devil: A parson. (Slang)
Snuffer Maker: Someone who made the small metal cap that was put over a wick to extinguish a candle.
Soap Boiler: Someone who makes soap by boiling a combination of animal fat or oil, quick-lime, potash and soda.
Socker: This is a shoe-making term for the person who fits the thin piece of leather to cover the innersole, and will also fit any padding or metatarsal pads where necessary.
Socman: A tenant by socage. (The tenure of lands by service fixed and determinate in quality) (Also Sokeman)
Sodbuster: A farmer. (Slang)
Soiriste: A drama critic.
Soken: A miller's right to the grinding of all the corn within a certain manor.
Soldato: An Italian soldier.
Soldier's Mawnd: A beggar pretending to be a soldier and having been wounded in battle.
Son of a Gun: This is a seaman who was born on board a warship.
Solfa: A parish clerk.
Solitaire: A hermit who lives alone.
Somatologist: The physiological and anatomical study of the human body.
Sommelier: A butler or cellarman.
Sonneteer: A writer of sonnets.
Son of Prattlement: A lawyer.
Soph: An undergraduate in his second year at Cambridge University.
Sophist: A scholar.
Sophister: A student at an English university in his second or third year. The students in these years being called junior and senior sophister respectively.
Sophomore: A second-year student. (Often at an American university).
Sorbonist: A doctor from the Sorbonne in Paris.
Soteriologist: Someone who studies the doctrine of salvation.
Soubise maker: A cravat maker.
Soudard: An old soldier.
Soul Doctor: A parson.
Souper: A person who converts to a belief or religion for financial reward.
Souscrivant: An underwriter. (French)
Souter: A shoemaker. (Also sowter & soutar).
Sowar: A native horse soldier in the British Indian army.
Sow gelder: Someone who spays cows.
Spaccalegna: An Italian wood cutter.
Spadaio: A sword maker. (Italian)
Spadassin: A swordsman.
Spaller: A tin mining term for breaking up the ore into smaller pieces. This was often done by young boys or girls.
Spanish Padlock Maker: A chastity belt maker (Circa 1800)
Spazzolaio: An Italian brushmaker.
Specchiaio: An Italian maker of mirrors.
Specker: A shoemaker. Although frequently less prestigious than a shoemaker.
Specksynder: The chief harpooner on a whale catching ship, who would have been in charge of operations when in whaling grounds.
Spectioneer: The chief harpooner on a whale catching ship, who would have been in charge of operations when in whaling grounds.
Spectioner: The chief harpooner on a whale catching ship, who would have been in charge of operations when in whaling grounds.
Spedaliere: An administrator in a hospital.
Speleologist: This is a person involved with the scientific study of caves.
Speranaio: An Italian pack saddle maker.
Spial: A spy or a scout.
Spillettaio: An Italian pin maker.
Spinner: Someone who would spin textiles.
Spinster: Someone whose occupation involves spinning thread.
Spintext: A lengthy preacher.
Spiritual Flesh Broker: A parson.
Split Cause: A lawyer.
Split Fig: A grocer.
Split Iron: A blacksmith.
Splitter: Someone who works in a slate quarry splitting the slate into tiles or workable shapes.
Spoilsman: Someone who looks for profit out of politics.
Spongologist: Someone who studies sponges.
Sponsor: (1) Someone who promises solemnly for another. (2) A godfather or godmother.
Sporologist: A botanist who emphasises the spores in classification.
Spurious: Usually refers to an illegitimate child in a baptism entry.
Squadron: (1) A body of cavalry, consisting of two troops, or 120 to 200 men. (2) A body of soldiers drawn up in a square. (3) In the Navy, a section of the fleet commanded by a flag-officer.
Square wright: A carpenter. Usually a furniture maker.
Squarson: Someone who is both a beneficed clergyman and a squire or land-owner in a parish. They would have lived in a squarsonage.
Squatter: This is someone who would take pieces of common land and build cottages for their own use without permission.
Squawman: A white man with a native American Indian wife.
Squire: A squire was originally a young man who aspired to the rank of knighthood. Later this became the head of a manor house.
Squireen: A gentleman farmer, one almost a squire.
Squirrel: A prostitute.
Stabler: The keeper of a stable.
Staff captain: The senior grade in the navigating branch in the British navy.
Staff corps: A body of intelligent officers and men who performed engineering and siege duties, made reconnaissance's etc., during the wars of Wellington.
Stagnaio: An Italian tinsmith.
Stagnino: An Italian tinsmith.
Stake holder: The person with whom the stakes in a wager are deposited. An olden day bookie.
Stallman: A mining term for a sub-contractor who looked after a particular area.
Stamaiolo: A thread maker.
Standard Bearer of England: This was once an important office within the English army, especially during the times when Kings were still prepared to fight on the battlefield, and probably goes back to at least the 12th century. In modern times it has subsequently become an honorary position and is linked with the Queen's Champion.
Starbowliner: An archaic Royal Navy term for someone on the starboard watch.
Statesman: A politician, or someone employed in public affairs.
Stationary Engine Driver: This wasn’t an engine that travelled along a railway line, but was usually allied to the farming or industrial use. Today we might call it a Machine Operator, and these engines basically were generators which provided the power via belts or pulleys for other smaller machinery. It could be on a farm to work plough’s, or to drive a threshing machine. In its industrial use it might power the lifts that took miners up and down to the pit. As a power source they could be adapted to almost anything.
Statist: A politician or a statesman.
Statuaire: A sculptor. (French)
Statuary: An artist who carves images in stone, or marble etc. (for example, Michael Angelo was a statuary)
Staymaker: A corset maker.
Steam loom beamer: A textile worker who would wind the warp threads onto a roller before attaching it to the loom.
Steenhouwer: A Dutch mason.
Steganographist: One who writes in an cipher.
Stenographer: Someone involved in the art of writing quickly by means of abbreviations: shorthand.
Sterotyper: Someone who makes metallic stereotype plates used in printing.
Stevedore: Someone working in the docks whose job it is to load and unload ships.
Steward: (1) Someone who presided over a manorial court, kept records and dealt with transfers of land. A bailiff worked under him, and was accountable to the lord of the manor. (2) A ship's officer who is in charge of provisions and dining arrangements. (3) A mess attendant in a naval mess, either on a ship or on land.
Stickler: Originally one of the seconds in a duel who would have had sticks or staves to occasionally intervene.
Stifing maker: Someone who made starch.
Stinarius: A Ploughman. (Latin)
Stiratrice: An ironer.
Stockbroker: A broker who deals with stock or shares.
Stockinger: Someone in the textile industry who operated a stocking hand loom, a stocking weaver or framework knitter.
Stockinner: Someone in the textile industry who operated a stocking hand loom, a stocking weaver or framework knitter.
Stockman: A farmer who breeds or raises livestock.
Stoker: Someone working on a coal-powered steam ship to stoke the boilers. Would be called a fireman in the merchant navy.
Stomatologist: A branch of medicine involving the study of the mouth and diseases of the mouth. An olden day dentist.
Stone Cutter: Someone whose occupation was to cut or hew stone prior to them being used for building.
Stone dresser: Someone whose occupation was to cut or hew stone prior to them being used for building.
Stoneman: (1) A mining term for someone who excavates stone, or harder material than coal. (2) A waywarden. (A parish officer appointed in accordance with the 1555 Highway Act to take charge of road repairs)
Stroller: A beggar.
Stoper: This is a mining terminology which involved drilling vertical 6 foot holes above a miner’s head. Once this was done they would put explosives into the ceiling and explode if making a larger area or creating a new tunnel. This technique was particularly used in the Cornish tin mines.
Stovigliaio: A dealer in earthenware.
Stratigraphist: A student of stratigraphical geology.
Straw plaiter: Someone who plaits straw in preparation for hat making.
Strokesman: The after-most rower whose stroke leads the rest of the rowers.
Strumpet: A lady of "easy virtue".
Subaltern: (1) A subordinate. (2) An army officer under the rank of a captain.
Sub lieutenant: Formerly a mate, or passed midshipman, the intermediate rank in the navy between midshipman and lieutenant.
Subsidiary troops: Mercenaries.
Substitute: This refers to someone provided generally by the parish to replace a parishioner called up for service in the militia.
Sucrier: A sugar maker or seller. (French)
Suffragant: A parson's assistant.
Sugar Baker: The owner of a sugar house or a factory for refining raw sugar.
Summoner: Someone whose responsibility is to warn people when to appear in court. Originally an apparitor.
Sumpman: Someone who sinks the sump in a mine.
Superintendant: An overseer.
Supervisores Fabricae Ecclesiae: A Churchwarden.
Supervisores Pauperum: An overseer of the poor.
Supouch: A landlady of an inn, or hostess.
Surmaster: A master in a school next in rank to a headmaster.
Surrogate: Appointed by a bishop to act on his behalf. Was sometimes empowered to issue Marriage Licences.
Surveyor: A generic term for someone who surveys or examines something to test its condition.
Surveyor of highways: A parish officer appointed in accordance with the 1555 Highway Act to take charge of road repairs. Otherwise a waywarden.
Sutler: A civilian who sells provisions to the army in the field, in camp, or in their quarters.
Sumpter: An archaic term for someone in charge of a packhorse or mule carry goods. (From French-sometier)
Swabber: (1) A sailor. (Slang) (2) A cleaner who might use a swab.
Swad: A slang term for a soldier.
Swadkin: A slang term for a soldier.
Swag shop: A place where cheap and trashy goods are sold.
Swindler: One who obtains goods on credit by false pretences.
Swineherd: Someone who looks after pigs. A pig farmer.
Swineward: Someone who looks after pigs. A pig farmer.
Swisher: A pheasant poacher.
Switch Keeper: A mining term for someone who operated or looked after the underground switches on the tracks that carried the coal wagons.
Sworder: A swordsman.
Sword player: A fencer.
Sword Racketeer: Someone who signs up for different military regiments and then immediately disappears after having received his bounty for joining.
Sworn broker: A London broker who swears before the court of aldermen to maintain honesty in dealing.
Symblair: A butler.
Symphonist: A composer of symphonies.
Syntax: A schoolmaster.
Synosteologist: A doctor who treats joints.