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Tabaccaio: An Italian tobacconist.
Tabellarius: A mailman or postal messenger. (Latin-this occupation goes back to Roman times)
Tabernaria: The hostess of a tavern.
Tabler: A keeper of a boarding house or inn.
Tachygrapher: The art of writing in abbreviations.
Tackler: A workman who repairs broken weaving looms in textile factories.
Tadpole: A navy slang for someone who hasn't crossed the Equator.
Taffeta Maker: The maker of a "luxury" cloth largely used to make dresses which often used a mixture of wool and silk.
Tagliaferro: An Italian iron worker.
Tagliapietro: An Italian stonecutter.
Tail: A prostitute. (Circa 1800)
Taillandier: A tool maker.
Taillandier: A tool maker.
Tailor: A maker or repairer of clothes.
Tallage Collector: Someone who collected the rent or taxes on tenants living on royal estates.
Tallow Chandler: A candle maker. Tallow candles used to be made of equal parts of bullocks' and sheep's fat. They were either moulded or dipped. The wick was made out of split rushes until cotton wicks took over.
Tallower: A tallow chandler.
Tally Clerk: Someone who checks goods in and out. Often located at a wharf or dock.
Tally Ironer: Someone in the textile industry working with the starched fabric and a shaping device used to make lady's bonnets.
Tally Man: Someone who hires clothes to the women of the town (circa 1800)
Tallyman: (1) A collector of payments for goods bought on hire purchase. (2) A keeper of the village animal pound, as animals were often held against a debt. A tally stick (a sort of a receipt) would be used as proof the animal could be released. (3) A person who literally did a head count of people, probably on behalf of the parish or house owner. (4) An unmarried man living with a woman.
Talonnier: A heel maker.
Tamisier: A sieve maker or seller. (French)
Tandem Driver: The driver of a two wheeled chaise drawn by two horses.
Tanner: A person who is employed to tan animal hides.
Taper Maker: The maker of wicks used in candles.
Tapicer: Someone who wove worsted cloth.
Tapiter: Someone who wove worsted cloth.
Tapper: (1) A bailiff. (2) Literally, someone who taps. (3) Someone who puts the taps into barrels or casks. (4) A Dutch Pub or Tavern owner.
Tappezziere: An Italian upholsterer.
Tasker: A labourer who receives payment "in kind".
Tasseler: Someone who made tassels that would be used as a decoration in furniture making.
Taster: (1) One skilful in distinguishing flavours by the taste. (2) One whose duty it is to test the quality of food by tasting it before serving it to his master.
Taupier: A mole catcher.
Tavernaio: An Italian Inn-keeper.
Taverner: The owner of a tavern or inn.
Tavernier: An Inn-Keeper.
Tavolacciaio: An Italian table maker.
Tavoliere: An Italian money changer.
Tawer: Someone who converts skin into white leather rather than using the tanning process. Minerals such as salt and alum would have been used instead.
Taxidermist: The art of preparing and stuffing the skins of animals. Taxing master: An officer of a court of law who examines bills of costs.
Taylor: A maker or repairer of clothes.
Tazeller: A worker in the textile industry involved in carding.
Team(er) Man: The driver of a team of horses, normally on a farm.
Teamster: The driver of a team of horses normally used for haulage, or on a farm.
Teaser: The stoker of a glass-works furnace.
Tegularius: A Brickmaker. (Latin)
Teinturier: A dyer.
Tekenaar: A Dutch designer.
Telegraph Man: A navy term for the rating who would be stationed on the ship's bridge and would work the engine room telegraphs as and when required.
Teleonarius: A Tax Collector. (Latin)
Templar: (1) Someone belonging to a religious and military order founded in the 12th century for protection of the Holy Sepulchre and pilgrims. (2) A student or lawyer living in the Temple in London. These people were originally called "Poor Soldiers of the Temple of Solomon."
Tenant Farmer: Someone who works land owned by someone else.
Tenant in Chief: Someone who held either land or property directly from the Crown.
Tenant in Common: Someone who held either land or property with others.
Tendeur: Someone who set animal snares.
Tenor: Someone who sings tenor. A male voice between bass and alto.
Tenter: A textile worker who stretched cloth.
Teratologist: The study of malformations or abnormal growth in animals or vegetables.
Tessellator: Someone who worked with mosaics. Also known as a Mosaicist.
Tessitore: An Italian weaver.
Tessitore-di-lana: An Italian wool weaver.
Tessitore-di-lino: An Italian linen weaver.
Tessitore-di-seta: An Italian silk weaver.
Tetragamy: A marriage for the fourth time.
Teutonic Knights: One of the three military and religious orders of knighthood founded during the period of the Crusades. Their distinguishing habiliment a white mantle with a black cross.
Textor: A male weaver. (Latin)
Textrina: A female weaver.
Textuary: Someone with good knowledge of the bible or in bible school.
Thacker: A roof slater.
Thakstone(r): A roofer who used stone rather than slate as a roofing medium. As in thatch stone.
Thalassographer: A person who studies the science of the ocean.
Thatcher: A person who thatches roofs with reeds or straw.
Thaumaturgist: A person who works wonders or miracles.
Theatin: A monk. (French)
Thematist: A writer of themes.
Theogonist: A writer on theogony. (A study of the birth and genealogy of the gods)
Theologist: Someone who studies theology. A theologian.
Thereologist: The art of healing.
Thirdborough: A tithingman or a deputy constable.
Thirdsman: A mediator.
Threnodist: A writer of threnodies. (An ode or song of lamentation).
Thresher: Someone who separated the head of a stalk of grain from the chaff.
Throstler: The operator of a steam driven machine in the textile industry used for twisting the fibres when making worsted.
Thrower: Someone in the textile industry who twists silk or other fibres into yarn.
Throwster: Someone in the textile industry who twists silk or other fibres into yarn.
Thrummer: The player of a spinet, harpsichord or a guitar.
Thruster: Someone who pushed wagons of coal in a mine. Often a child.
Thumper: A preacher. Often an over enthusiastic one.
Ticket porter: A licensed porter wearing a badge or a ticket.
Tickle Tait: A schoolmaster (Circa 1800)
Tickle Text: A parson. (Circa 1800)
Tickneyman: An itinerant pedlar selling pottery etc.
Tide Waiter: A customs officer at a port or dock in the 18th century whose duty was to board ships coming in on the tide with the aim of preventing smuggling. Other customs officers were Land Waiters and King's Waiters.
Tidesman: A customs officer at a port or dock.
Tignarius: A Carpenter. (Latin)
Tiler: (1) The doorman of a Masonic lodge. (2) Someone who lays roof or floor tiles.
Tiller: (1) An agricultural labourer who tills the soil. (2) A helmsman on a boat.
Tillman: An agricultural labourer who tills the soil, possibly by using a plough.
Tiltmaker: A worker in canvas who would have made awnings.
Tim Whisky Driver: The driver of a light open top chaise pulled by one horse.
Timberman: The person responsible for the timbers in a mine.
Time Keeper: Someone who keeps workmen's time.
Timmerlieden: A Dutch carpenter.
Timmerman: A Dutch carpenter.
Timonier: A helmsman.
Tinctor: Someone who dyes or stains something, as in a textile worker. (Latin)
Tin Dresser: This is a tin processing term, and often refers to Cornwall. Tin ore was initially crushed and concentrated at the mine and underwent a variety of processes which, to a degree, differed from site to site. The product (cassiterite or ‘black tin’) was always smelted in Cornwall up until 1838, due to Stannary requirements, with the last works surviving until the 1930s – ‘Seleggan’ at Carnkie closing in 1931. The "dressing" involved crushing the ore and sorting the lumps of ore, getting rid of as much waste rock as possible whilst reducing the fragments of ore to a more or less constant size before smelting could take place. The aim was to concentrate the tin ore, which would be done by using water to leach out the lighter minerals, leaving as much of the heavier tin ore as possible.
Tingalary Man: The operator of a hand driven mechanical piano that would have been played in the street.
Tinker: An itinerant person who mended pots and pans. Tinner: Someone involved in tin mining.
Tinter: A photographer's assistant who hand coloured black and white photographs.
Tintore: A dyer.
Tipper: (1) Someone who would have dyed the tips of fur or hair to improve its appearance. (2) Someone who inserted pages into a book by gluing them in. (3) Someone who put the tip on something-for instance an arrow.
Tippler: An inn keeper.
Tipstaff: An officer of the court. (2) An officer such as a bailiff or constable who would carry a tipstalf as a sign of their authority.
Tirailleur: A sharpshooter. (French)
Tiratore: An Italian wool stretcher.
Tire Woman: According to Johnson's Dictionary of 1806, this is a woman who makes "dresses for the head".
Tireur: A rifleman or marksman. (French)
Tisserand: A weaver.
Tisseur: A weaver.
Tithe proctor: A levier or collector of tithes.
Tithingman: A constable or deputy constable. Was possibly responsible for ten families on the basis that a tithe was a tenth part of the produce. (17th century)
Titular bishop: In Roman Catholic usage, a bishop without a diocese, taking his title from a place where there is no longer a bishop's see.
Toast Master: An announcer of toasts at public dinners.
Toby Lay: A highwayman or a footpad.
Todhunter: A fox hunter hired by the parish.
Toilier: A linen maker.
Toiseur: A quantity surveyor. (French)
Tollman: The man who collects toll for the liberty of passing over a bridge or road. (Also toller or toll gatherer).
Tombeur: (1) A housebreaker. (2) A demolition worker.
Tonsor: A Barber. (Latin)
Tonsure: A cleric or a Priest. (French)
Tool Helver: Someone who made the wooden handles that were attached to tools.
Topman: (1) A seaman whose duties are in the top, which is a platform at the head of the lower mast. (2) A Royal Navy term for someone on the foretop or maintop division of a watch.
Topographist: The art of describing places.
Toppaiolo: An Italian lock maker.
Topping Cove: A hangman. (Circa 1800)
Topsman: (1) A head-drover. (2) A foreman.
Tordeur: A silk twister. (French)
Tormenter of Catgut: A fiddler. (As in musician)
Tormenter of sheep skin: A drummer. (Circa 1800)
Tormentor: An executioner.
Tornaio: A table maker.
Tornator: A lathe worker. (Latin)
Tornitore: A turner.
Torpedoist: One skilled in the management of torpedoes.
Tosatore: A shearer of animals.
Tourbier: A peat worker. (French)
Touwslager: A Dutch rope maker.
Tower Captain: The leading bell ringer in a Church.
Town Clerk: The secretary and/or chief administrative officer of a town or city.
Town Crier: Someone employed by a town to make public announcements in the streets.
Town Husband: Someone who collected the dues from fathers of illegitimate children so the children wouldn't be a financial drain on a Parish.
Town Waiter: An 18th century customs official.
Toxicologist: Someone involved in the science of investigating poisons.
Toxophilite: An archer or someone with a love of archery.
Trackman: A person who has charge of part of a railway track.
Tradesman: A general term for a shopkeeper or skilled craftsman, or monger.
Traghettatore: An Italian ferryman.
Traiteur: A caterer or restaurant keeper. (French)
Trampler: A lawyer.
Tranqueter: Someone who makes the retaining hoops for a barrel or cask.
Transfuge: A deserter.
Translator: Someone selling or making second hand boots and shoes. A cross between a cobbler and a shoemaker.
Tranter: An itinerant pedlar of goods.
Trapper: Someone who traps or catches animals for their fur.
Trappist: A member of a monastic body, a branch of the Cistercians, noted for the extreme austerity of the rule. So named from the abbey of La Trappe in the French department of Orne.
Traqueur: A beater-as in hunting. (French)
Traveller: This may mean what we understand today to be a Gypsy, but is just as likely to be a truncated term for a Commercial Traveller.
Travers: A toll bridge collector.
Treccone: A fruit and vegetable seller.
Tree Farmer: A forestry worker.
Treemaker: This is a shoe-making term for the person who makes the “tree” which is a shaped wooden block that is inserted into a finished boot or shoe enabling it to maintain its shape.
Treenail Maker: Someone who made wooden pegs or dowels used in shipbuilding to hold planks of wood together. When wet, the treenail would expand forming a tight join. Also called a trenail or a trunnel.
Treenmaker: Someone who made small household goods out of wood.
Trekker: An abbreviation of Voortrekker-A semi-nomadic farmer or pioneer-who would usually to be found in South Africa. (Afrikanns/Dutch)
Trencherman: A cook.
Tresorier: A treasurer. (French)
Tresseur: A braider.
Tributer: A miner paid by a proportion of the ore raised.
Trickster: A cheat.
Tricoteur: A knitter. (French)
Trigamist: Someone who marries three times.
Trimmer: Although this is a somewhat generic term, it normally refers to a naval rating who would move the coal or cargo from the hatchway to the wings and under the available deck space in the hold.
Tringlot: A baggage train soldier or guard.
Tripotier: A gaming house keeper. (French)
Troacher: An itinerant pedlar of goods.
Troglodyte: A cave dweller.
Trolly Lolly Maker: The maker of a coarse lace, once much is fashion.
Troner: An official whose job it was to weigh goods at the tron-the scales on a weighing machine.
Troop of Gentlemen: This is position within the British Royal Household, and was formed in 1509 by King Henry VIII to act as a mounted escort, armed with spear and lance to protect the sovereign, in battle or elsewhere. They last saw service in battle during the English Civil War, by which time they had become dismounted. The troop was largely made up of cadets of noble families. Today, the duties are purely ceremonial.
Trooper: A private cavalry soldier.
Troubadore: (1) An inventor or composer of fictitious stories. (2) An 11th-13th century French poet.
Trumpet major: A head trumpeter in a band or regiment.
Trumpeter: (1) Someone who plays or sounds a trumpet. (2) Someone who announces something-as in a Herald.
Trunk Maker: A maker of trunks, chests, portmanteaus, plate and knives cases, and buckets which were used in fire fighting.
Tub Thumper: A Presbyterian parson.
Tucker: A textile worker who cleanses wool through the process of fulling.
Tuft hunter: A person over eager to form an acquaintance with persons of rank or consequence.
Tulliste: A tulle maker or seller. Tulle is most commonly used for veils, gowns (particularly wedding gowns), and ballet tutus. It comes in a wide variety of colours and it can also easily be dyed to suit the requirements of the buyer.
Turbary: Someone who has been given permission from the lord of the manor to cut for peat or other fuels within the manor's grounds.
Turbury: Someone who has been given permission from the lord of the manor to cut for peat or other fuels within the manor's grounds.
Turkey Merchant: A poultry seller.
Turner: Someone who works with a lathe to shape wood. Other materials were also crafted, including horn, ivory, brass, iron and silver.
Turnkey: A jailor.
Turnpike Man: A parson (Slang. Because the clergy collect their tolls at our entrance into and exit from the world.) (circa 1800) (2) Someone who collected the toll at the tollgate. (a barrier)
Turnspit: A youth who would have turned the spit whilst meat was being roasted.
Twangey: A north country term for a tailor.
Tweeny: A junior domestic servant similar to a Parlour Maid, usually in a large house and one of some or many other servant staff. The position tended to die out from the beginning of the 20th century. A Tweeny had approximately the same status as a Scullery Maid. In larges houses her duties would extend to waiting on the more senior servants such as the Housekeeper, Butler or Cook. (Also known as a Hall Girl or a Between Maid) The term Between Maid comes from the fact that her duties were split between the cook and the butler.
Twister: A worker in the textile industry who would twist two different yarns together to make a stronger one.
Tye Maker: Someone who would make a neck cloth. Type Founder: A maker of type or letters that will later be used by printers. This process comprises of molten metal being poured into moulds. The moulds would have been cut by a letter cutter. A type founder could cast up to 3000 letters a day.
Typographer: A printer.
Ugly man: The actual person who garrottes the victim in a confederacy of three, the others, the fore-stall and back-stall, covering his escape.
Uitdekker: A Dutch roofer.
Uitgever: A Dutch publisher.
Under Dubber: A jailer.
Under Viewer: A viewer's deputy. A viewer is a mining term for the person responsible for the ventilation in a mine.
Undertaker: Someone whose profession is the preparation of the dead for burial or cremation.
Underwriter: Someone who insures a risk, either wholly or in part, for a fixed amount of money.
Unfortunate Gentlemen: A slang term for someone in the horse guards regiment. (Circa 1800)
Unfortunate Woman: A prostitute.
Ungrateful Man: A parson. (Circa 1800)
Unicorn(er): A driver of a three horse coach.
Uomodifatica: An Italian "Jack of all trades".
Upholder: (1) A seller of second hand items. (2) An undertaker. (3) An upholsterer. (4) A broker. (5) An auctioneer.
Upholsterer: Someone who finishes off furniture by adding cloth or another material to it.
Uplander: A highlander. Someone who lives on high ground.
Uranographer: Someone who studies or maps the "heavenly bodies".
Urbaniste: A town planner. (French)
Urine Maker. This is someone who makes nets to catch Hawks etc. in.
Urry Digger: This is someone who digs for urry, which is a blue or black clay found in coal mines.
Ursuline: A order of Nuns.
Usciere: A doorman or usher.
Usciere-Comande: An Italian Head Court Bailiff.
Usher: (1) Originally someone whose duty was to introduce strangers. (2) Someone who would walk before someone of rank. (3) An under-teacher or assistant. (4) A doorkeeper. Usinier: A French mill owner.
Utlaugh: An outlaw.
Uurwerkmaker: A Dutch clock maker.
Vaccaio: A cowboy or keeper of cows. (Italian)
Vacher: A herdsman.
Vagabond: Someone who wanders without any settled habitation. A vagrant. An idle person.
Vaginarius: A maker of sheathes and scabbards.
Vaguemestre: A baggage master. (French)
Vagus: A Tramp. (Latin)
Vaiaio: A furrier. Valet: A male personal servant.
Valuator: A general term for someone who estimates the value of something.
Vamper: A sort of shoe repairer who replaces the vamp on a shoe (the vamp is the upper part of a boot or shoe covering the instep and sometimes extending over the toe)
Vandevilliste: A script writer for vaudeville.
Vanguard: The guard in the van of an army. The part of an army preceding the main part.
Vannier: A basket maker.
Varensgezel: A Dutch sailor.
Varnisher: Someone who applied varnish to furniture.
Vasaio: A potter. Vassal: (1) A slave. (2) A subordinate. (3) A person who held land from a feudal lord and received protection in return for homage and allegiance. (4) A servant or attendant.
Vaticale: A water carrier.
Vatman: (1) A paper maker who added pulp to be moulded. (2) Someone in the brewery industry working with kegs of beer.
Vavasour: In feudal times, one who held his lands not directly of the crown, but of one of the higher nobility.
Vedette: A cavalry guard at an outpost who would look out for an enemy.
Veeart: A veterinarian.
Velite: A lightly armed soldier.
Veloarbeider: A Dutch farm worker.
Veloitier: A velvet weaver.
Venalicius: A Slave Trader. (Latin)
Venator: A huntsman. (Latin)
Venditore: A salesman.
Venter: A peddler. (Dutch)
Verbalist: One skilled in words. A literalist.
Verderer: The official in charge of the royal forests of medieval England, which probably goes back to the 11th century. This was normally a job for life. (2) A petty constable.
Verdurier: A greengrocer.
Verfmaker: A maker of paint. (Dutch)
Verge Maker: Someone who made the spindles that are used in watches.
Verger: (1) A vicar's assistant. Normally a layman, and typically doesn't have a speaking part in the church service. Originally a verger carried the verge, an emblem of authority. (2) The beadle of a cathedral church.
Vergetier: A brush maker.
Verloskundige: A Dutch midwife.
Verpleesster: A nurse. (Dutch)
Verrier: A worker in glass. (French)
Versifier: A contemptuous name often applied to bad or inferior poets. Similar to poetaster or rhymester.
Versionist: A translator.
Vescovo: A Bishop.
Vestry clerk: An officer chosen by the vestry who keeps the parish accounts and books.
Vestry man: A member of the vestry.
Vetraio: A glazier.
Vexillator: A standard bearer.
Vexillographer: Someone who studies flags. This could also extend to designing or making flags.
Vexillologist: Someone who studies flags. This could also extend to designing or making flags.
Vicar General: (1) The deputy to an archbishop or bishop. (2) An official performing the work of an archdeacon under the bishop.
Vicar: (1) Originally the priest of a parish in the Church of England who receives a salary but doesn't receive the tithes of a parish. (2) A cleric acting in the place of a rector or bishop in the Anglican Communion generally. (3) A Church of England clergyman in charge of a chapel or church.
Vicar-forane: An ecclesiastic to whom a bishop gives a limited jurisdiction in a town or district of his diocese—in effect, a rural dean.
Vice Admiral: A high ranking officer in the navy. Senior to a rear admiral, and junior to an admiral.
Vice dean: A canon chosen to represent an absent dean.
Vicegerent: A generic term for someone who acts on behalf of a superior.
Viceman: A smith who works using a vice rather than an anvil.
Vicereine: The wife of a viceroy.
Viceroy: A royal officer who runs a country, colony or state whilst representing his mother country.
Victor: A Cooper. (Latin)
Victualler: (1) Traditionally similar to a grocer. (2) A supplier of food to the Royal Navy. (Victualling Board). (3) A supply ship for the Royal Navy. (4) An alternative term for sutler which is a supplier of food to the army. (5) The landlord of a public house would be a licensed victualler.
Vidame: A French minor noblman.
Viewer: A mining term for the person responsible for the ventilation in a mine. This can also indicate an overall manager of a pit.
Vigie: A watchman or look-out man. (French)
Vigilaio: An Italian fireman.
Vignaiolo: A grape vine grower.
Vigneron: A wine dresser or wine grower. (French)
Vignettist: One who makes vignettes-a small ornamental engraving, design, or photograph.
Vignettiste: An engraver. (French)
Vilain: A French village peasant.
Villein: A tenant farmer or a peasant.
Villico: An Italian farmer.
Vinaigrier: A vinegar maker. (French)
Vinaio: A vintner.
Vinattiere: A wine dealer.
Vine Dresser: Someone who cultivates a vine.
Vintager: A grape grower.
Vintner: (1) A wine maker or dealer. (2) A tavern keeper.
Violist: Someone who would play the violin or viol.
Violoncellist: A player on the violoncello. (A large four-stringed musical instrument of the violin class, which is held between the knees when playing)
Virger: A vicar's assistant. Normally a layman, and typically doesn't have a speaking part in the church service. Also a verger.
Viscount(ess): Literally and originally, a vice count. The officer who took the place of a count or an earl. A title of nobility below an earl.
Viseur: An artillery aimer.
Visitant: Someone who is a guest in the house of another. A visitor.
Visscher: A fisherman. (Dutch)
Viticulteur: A grape vine grower. (French)
Viticultore: A grape vine grower.
Vitriarius: A Glassmaker. (Latin)
Vitrier: A Glassmaker. (French)
Vittler: The rating on a ship who looks after issuing the rations to the cook. He may also be responsible for the ordering and storing of food.
Vivandier: A canteen manager.
Voerman: A coach driver. (Dutch)
Voilier: A sail maker. (French)
Volcanist: A student of volcanic phenomena.
Voleur: A robber.
Voorlooper: A young boy who controls a team of oxen. (Afrikanns/Dutch)
Voortrekker: A semi-nomadic farmer or pioneer-and usually in South Africa. (Afrikanns/Dutch)
Votary: Someone who has agreed to uphold a religious vow.
Vrillier: A gimlet maker. (French)
Vulcan: A Blacksmith.
Wabster: A weaver.
Wadsetter: In Scotland, where land is put aside as collateral against a debt-often for a neighbour.
Waggoner: A general term for the driver of a wagon. Usually a farming occupation.
Wailer: A young boy in a pit who would manually take out impurities or pyrites from the coal.
Wain Loader: Someone who loads a wagon.
Wainer: The driver of a wagon usually found on a farm.
Wainwright: A skilled wagon maker and repairer. Similar to a Cartwright.
Waistcoateer: A strumpet.
Waister: An inexperienced or incapacitated seaman who would be allocated duties in the waist of the ship rather than on deck. The waist would be a deck between the forecastle and poop or quarter deck.
Waiters: These were originally customs officers who boarded ships both in and out of port to collect taxes and search for contraband. A Tide-Waiter would meet the ships on arrival, and a Coasting Waiter the outgoing ships.
Waits: Originally night-watchmen at houses of the rich or famous, but subsequently piped or called the time on rounds in the wealthier districts.
Wakeman: A leading Magistrate.
Walker: (1) A travelling or itinerant vendor of cheap goods who operated on foot. (2) A male escort to a female.
Walter: (1) A pilgrim. (2) A woodman.
Wapentake: A name given in Yorkshire to the territorial divisions of the county, similar to the hundreds of southern counties and the wards of more northern counties, so called from the inhabitants being formerly taught the use of arms.
Wardecorps: A soldier belonging to the Lifeguard Regiment.
Warden of the Cinque Ports: The governor of the Cinque Ports, having the authority of an admiral and the power to hold a court of admiralty.
Warden of the Marches: Officers formerly appointed to keep the districts of England adjoining Scotland and Wales in a state of defence.
Warden of the Mint: Formerly the official of the English Mint next in rank to the Master.
Warden: (1) Similar to a warder. Someone who guards. (2) The head of a college.
Warder: (1) A guard, porter, or watcher of a gate or tower. (2) A jailer.
Wardholder: This was the Scottish equivalent of tenure by knight service, and was abolished in 1746.
Warrant Officer: (1) A military rank introduced into the British Army in 1879. (2) An obsolete Royal Navy rank whose authority derived from a warrant issued by the Lord High Admiral of Great Britain and Ireland. The rank was junior to a commissioned officer, but senior to all subordinate officers.
Warrant Shipwright: This would have be a Royal Navy warrant officer responsible for the ship's carpenters and in general for the ship's structure. Later became a Commissioned Shipwright.
Warrener: (1) A gamekeeper. (2) Someone who owns or keeps a rabbit warren.
Washvrouw: A washerwoman. (Dutch)
Wasteman: A mining occupation for the person who examined the mine to ensure it was safe and that there was sufficient ventilation.
Watch and Ward Man: These were people appointed to police an area under the supervision of a constable. The watch was the night shift, and ward was the day shift. They had powers to arrest people who would be placed in the care of the constable.
Watcher: A guard.
Watchman: A guard. The watch historically refers to night time. See also Watch and Ward Man.
Water Bailiff: (1) An official who is responsible for enforcing laws on river management and fishing. (2) A Customs Officer at a port. (3) A person appointed to guard the fish in a protected piece of water.
Water guard: River, harbour, or coastal police.
Water Leader: A mining occupation the person who kept the mine clear of water.
Water thief: A pirate.
Waterman: A boatman. Circa 1800 Watermen would ply for fares on the River Thames. (There were only three bridges at the time) The waterman, their boats, as well as the fares were regulated by Parliament. The boats were required to be at least twelve foot six inches long and four foot six inches broad. To ply for trade, a waterman had to have served as an apprentice for seven years, or if an apprentice, having worked with a waterman for at least two years. They also had to be at least sixteen years of age. The law stated that if anyone drowned from a waterman's boat that was overcrowded, the operator could face transportation.
Wattman: A train driver. (French)
Way Cleaner: A mining occupation whose responsibility was to keep the rail tracks clean and unobstructed.
Wayland: (1) An artificer. (2) A smith.
Waywarden: A parish officer appointed in accordance with the 1555 Highway Act to take charge of road repairs.
Weaver: Someone who worked a loom to make cloth.
Webster: A weaver.
Weed Farmer: This is someone who would deliberately grow weeds before selling them to horticulturalists for analysis.
Weekly Boater: A seaman, normally working in home waters who would be paid weekly.
Welder: (1) A land-tenant holding under the farmer or middleman. (2) A skilled workman who would join metals together by heating them.
Well Sinker: Someone who dug or sunk wells.
Wet Fish Seller: A seller of fresh as opposed to frozen or cooked fish.
Wet Nurse: A women who was employed to breast feed another woman's infant. In particular orphaned or abandoned babies.
Wetback: An unauthorized immigrant.
Whaleman: A person involved in catching whales.
Whaler: A person involved in catching whales.
Wharf rat: A chancer who loafs about a wharf in the hope of picking up a chance job.
Wharfinger: Someone who owns or manages a wharf.
Whealer: A worker in a Cornish tin mine.
Wheel Tapper: A railway worker who checks for cracks in train wheels by tapping the wheel and listening to the resulting ringing sound it makes.
Wheeler: A wheel maker.
Wheelwright: A wheelmaker-often using wood. This sometimes included the actual making of carts and waggons. There is still a Worshipful Company of Wheelwrights' of the City of London.
Wherryman: A person who sailed a wherry, which is a light fast sail or row boat used in East Anglia in particular. Their distinctive feature is a mast towards the front of the vessel.
Whiffler: A piper who plays on a fife to a Company of foot soldiers.
Whip cat: A tailor.
Whipper in: In hunting, one who keeps the hounds from wandering, and whips them in to the line of chase.
Whipper: The naval officer who administers punishment by whipping.
Whirlicote Maker: A very early maker of horse drawn coaches. One of the first coaches was a Whirlicote, with an open top, and had either two or four wheels.
White Cooper: The maker of domestic utensils including straight staved containers like washtubs, buckets and butter churns.
White Monk: See Cistercian.
Whitesmith: A metal worker who finishes and polishes metals; in particular tin plate and galvanized iron.
Whitester: Someone who bleached. Normally textiles.
Whitewing: A general term for a person wearing white, but normally seems to refer to a street sweeper.
Whiting Maker: This is someone who makes whitewash that would have been used to cover both inside and outside of buildings. (Also known as a Whitening Maker)
Whitster: Someone who bleached. Normally textiles.
Widow's man: A fictitious person.
Window Tax Collector: Introduced in 1697 and abolished in 1851, this was a tax levied on the number of windows in a property. The tax was originally introduced to make up for losses caused by clipping of coinage during the reign of William III, the tax was based on the number of windows in a house. It was a banded tax, for instance, in 1747 for a house with ten to fourteen windows the tax stood at 6d. per window; fifteen to nineteen windows, 9d; and exceeding twenty or more, 1s. The tax was raised six times between 1747 and 1808. By then the lowest band started at six windows. This was raised in 1825 to eight windows. As early as 1718 it was observed that there was a decline in revenue raised by the tax due to windows being blocked up. It was also observed that new houses were being built with fewer windows. In 1851, it was further reported that the production of glass since 1810 remained almost the same despite the large increase population and building of new houses.The medical profession argued that the lack of windows tended to create dark, damp tenements which were a source of disease and ill health.
Wine Cooper: Someone employed to draw off, sample, bottle or pack wine, spirits or malt liquor.
Winkelier: A shopkeeper. (Dutch)
Winnower: An agricultural worker who separated the grain from the chaff by causing a breeze to assist the process, or waved sheets about to cause a breeze.
Wiper: A junior crew-member in the engine room of a ship who would clean the engine space and machinery. Railway workers who carried out similar duties were also called wipers.
Wiseacre: Someone who pretends to great wisdom.
Wiseman: Someone who performed "white magic" on sick people or animals to help heal them and even predicted the weather. witnessing signatures on documents or dealing with non-contentious matters.
Woadman: A farmer who grew woad. (the plant Isatis tinctoria-whose leaves are used to dye wool) The leaves would be processed in a nearby woadmill.
Woman of the Bedchamber: This is a position within the British Royal Household, with the holder usually a daughter of a peer who would attend either a queen regnant or queen consort, in the role of Lady-in-Waiting. Queens Regnant or Consort also have Ladies of the Bedchamber who are typically wives or widows of peers above the rank of earl, and the senior Lady-in-Waiting is the Mistress of the Robes. On a day to day basis these ladies are termed Ladies-in-Waiting. The Women of the Bedchamber are usually in regular attendance, but the Mistress of the Robes and the Ladies of the Bedchamber are normally only required for ceremonial duties.
Wood Leader: The person who takes props in a mine to where they're required.
Wood(s)man: A forestry worker who looks after, and fells trees.
Woodward: A keeper of a wood or forest, and in charge of the planting of trees.
Wool Comber: A textile worker who combs or separates the fibers.
Wool Grower: A sheep farmer.
Woolman: A dealer in wool.
Wrangler: At the University of Cambridge, a student who has attained a first in the public mathematical honour examinations. (The student taking the first place in the class would be a senior wrangler, and the second place student would be a second wrangler etc.)
Wreck commissioner: A tribunal which inquires into shipping disasters.
Wreck master: A person taking charge of a disabled ship and its cargo. (Also a receiver of wrecks).
Wriggler: Someone who uses trickery.
Wright: Someone who makes something. i.e. A wheelwright, millwright, shipwright etc.
Writer: (1) A navy term for an administration clerk. Duties would include pay, cash and general administration. Also known as a scribe. (2) A professional scribe or clerk. (3) A legal practitioner in Scottish country towns.
Wykehamist: A student, or former student, of Winchester College, founded by William of Wykeham, Bishop of Winchester (died 1404)
Xylographer: A wood engraver who made blocks used in printing.
Zeelieden: Sailors. (Dutch)
Zeilmaker: A sail-maker. (Dutch)Z
Zenderling: A Missionary.
Zincographer: This is someone who etches on zinc or copper by which black and white pictures of all kinds can be reproduced as surface-blocks for printing by the ordinary letterpress process. In the etching, the white, and not the black lines as in the ordinary etching, are eaten away.
Zingarius: A Gypsy. (Latin)
Zingueur: A zinc worker. (French)
Zoccolaio: A maker of wooden shoes.
Zolfataro: An Italian sulphur miner.
Zoogeographer: A student of the science of the distribution of animals on the surface of the globe.
Zoologist: A student of the science of animal life included along with botany within the science of biology.
Zoonomist: A student of animal physiology.